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The adoption of BIM for facility management
Buildings have very long lifespans and decisions made before and during construction have long term consequences. A significant portion of life cycle cost is incurred during the operational and maintenance phase of a building (Patacas et al. 2015). More often than not, clients and investors often focus on the capital cost, with less or no consideration of future operation, maintenance and/or replacement costs (Patacas et al., 2015). Thus, data and information are left until the building is completed before being handed to the facilities managers in typically non-suitable, manual/paper-based or non-digital formats (Patacas, et al., 2015).
With the late delivery of non-digital data, it is challenging for facilities managers to assess the quality of information and whether the information they need is contained in the handover data. Emerging open BIM standards such as Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) and Construction Operations Building information exchange (COBie) can greatly facilitate the handing over of data and information to the facilities managers in a gradual and structured way (Patacas et al., 2015). However, facilities managers are still very reluctant to adopt open BIM standards in their practices due to many uncertainties (Becerik-Gerber et al., 2012).
Recent efforts that facilitate the use of COBie have been noted in the Publicly Available Specification (PAS 1192-3: 2014) and British Standards (BS 1192-4: 2014). PAS 1192-3: 2014 specifies how information can be managed in the operational phase while BS 1192-4: 2014 defines a methodology for the transfer between parties of structured information relating to facilities, including buildings and infrastructure. A recent report by UK National Building Specification revealed that only 26% and 18% of the UK construction professionals surveyed used PAS 1192-3:2014 and BS 1192-4:2014 respectively (NBS, 2015).
The low adoption of these standards can be explain by two main theories that are used in investigating the reluctance of people in adopting new technologies namely, the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) (Venkatesh and Bala, 2008; Venkatesh and Davis, 2000) and Innovation Diffusion Theory (IDT) (Rogers,2003). The integration of both theories will guide this study to establish a framework that can better facilitate the adoption of open BIM standards and standards guidelines in facilities management.