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Department of Biological and Medical Sciences
Faculty of Health and Life Sciences
The identification of genetic variants implicated in human developmental disorders has been revolutionized by second-generation sequencing combined with international pooling of cases. Here, we describe seven individuals who have diverse yet overlapping developmental anomalies, and who all have de novo missense FBXW11 variants identified by whole exome or whole genome sequencing and not reported in the gnomAD database. Their phenotypes include striking neurodevelopmental, digital, jaw, and eye anomalies, and in one individual, features resembling Noonan syndrome, a condition caused by dysregulated RAS signaling. FBXW11 encodes an F-box protein, part of the Skp1-cullin-F-box (SCF) ubiquitin ligase complex, involved in ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation and thus fundamental to many protein regulatory processes. FBXW11 targets include b-catenin and GLI transcription factors, key mediators of Wnt and Hh signaling, respectively, critical to digital, neurological, and eye development. Structural analyses indicate affected residues cluster at the surface of the loops of the substrate-binding domain of FBXW11, and the variants are predicted to destabilize the protein and/or its interactions. In situ hybridization studies on human and zebrafish embryonic tissues demonstrate FBXW11 is expressed in the developing eye, brain, mandibular processes, and limb buds or pectoral fins. Knockdown of the zebrafish FBXW11 orthologs fbxw11a and fbxw11b resulted in embryos with smaller, misshapen, and underdeveloped eyes and abnormal jaw and pectoral fin development. Our findings support the role of FBXW11 in multiple developmental processes, including those involving the brain, eye, digits, and jaw.
Background. A single variant in NAA10 (c.471+2T>A), the gene encoding N-acetyltransferase 10, has been associated with Lenz microphthalmia syndrome. In this study, we aimed to identify causative variants in families with syndromic X-linked microphthalmia. Methods. Three families, including 15 affected individuals with syndromic X-linked microphthalmia, underwent analyses including linkage analysis, exome sequencing and targeted gene sequencing. The consequences of two identified variants in NAA10 were evaluated using quantitative PCR and RNAseq. Results. Genetic linkage analysis in family 1 supported a candidate region on Xq27-28, which included NAA10. Exome sequencing identified a hemizygous NAA10 polyadenylation signal (PAS) variant, chrX:153,195,397T>C, c.*43A>G, which segregated with the disease. Targeted sequencing of affected males from families 2 and 3 identified distinct NAA10 PAS variants, chrX:g.153,195,401T>C, c.*39A>G and chrX:g.153,195,400T>C, c.*40A>G. All three variants were absent from gnomAD. Quantitative PCR and RNAseq showed reduced NAA10 mRNA levels and abnormal 3’ UTRs in affected individuals. Targetted sequencing of NAA10 in 376 additional affected individuals failed to identify variants in the PAS. Conclusion. These data show that PAS variants are the most common variant type in NAA10-associated syndromic microphthalmia, suggesting reduced RNA is the molecular mechanism by which these alterations cause microphthalmia/anophthalmia. We reviewed recognized variants in PAS associated with Mendelian disorders and identified only 23 others, indicating that NAA10 harbors more than 10% of all known PAS variants. We hypothesize that PAS in other genes harbor unrecognized pathogenic variants associated with Mendelian disorders. The systematic interrogation of PAS could improve genetic testing yields.
Eye formation is the result of coordinated induction and differentiation processes during embryogenesis. Disruption of any one of these events has the potential to cause ocular growth and structural defects, such as anophthalmia and microphthalmia (A/M). A/M can be isolated or occur with systemic anomalies, when they may form part of a recognizable syndrome. Their etiology includes genetic and environmental factors; several hundred genes involved in ocular development have been identified in humans or animal models. In humans, around 30 genes have been repeatedly implicated in A/M families, although many other genes have been described in single cases or families, and some genetic syndromes include eye anomalies occasionally as part of a wider phenotype. As a result of this broad genetic heterogeneity, with one or two notable exceptions, each gene explains only a small percentage of cases. Given the overlapping phenotypes, these genes can be most efficiently tested on panels or by whole exome/genome sequencing for the purposes of molecular diagnosis. However, despite whole exome/genome testing more than half of patients currently remain without a molecular diagnosis. The proportion of undiagnosed cases is even higher in those individuals with unilateral or milder phenotypes. Furthermore, even when a strong gene candidate is available for a patient, issues of incomplete penetrance and germinal mosaicism make diagnosis and genetic counselling challenging. In this review, we present the main genes implicated in nonsyndromic human A/M phenotypes and, for practical purposes, classify them according to the most frequent or predominant phenotype each is associated with. Our intention is that this will allow clinicians to rank and prioritize their molecular analyses and interpretations according to the phenotypes of their patients.
Previous imaging studies of congenital blindness have studiedindividuals with heterogeneous causes of blindness, which may influencethe nature and extent of cross-modal plasticity. Here, we scanned ahomogeneous group of blind people with bilateral congenitalanophthalmia, a condition in which both eyes fail to develop, and, as aresult, the visual pathway is not stimulated by either light or retinalwaves. This model of congenital blindness presents an opportunity toinvestigate the effects of very early visual deafferentation on thefunctional organization of the brain. In anophthalmic animals, theoccipital cortex receives direct subcortical auditory input. Wehypothesized that this pattern of subcortical reorganization ought toresult in a topographic mapping of auditory frequency information in theoccipital cortex of anophthalmic people. Using functional MRI, weexamined auditory-evoked activity to pure tones of high, medium, and lowfrequencies. Activity in the superior temporal cortex was significantlyreduced in anophthalmic compared with sighted participants. In theoccipital cortex, a region corresponding to the cytoarchitectural areaV5/MT+ was activated in the anophthalmic participants but not in sightedcontrols. Whereas previous studies in the blind indicate that thiscortical area is activated to auditory motion, our data show it is alsoactive for trains of pure tone stimuli and in some anophthalmicparticipants shows a topographic mapping (tonotopy). Therefore, thisregion appears to be performing early sensory processing, possiblyserved by direct subcortical input from the pulvinar to V5/MT+.
Imaging studies in blind subjects have consistently shown that sensory and cognitive tasks evoke activity in the occipital cortex, which is normally visual. The precise areas involved and degree of activation are dependent upon the cause and age of onset of blindness. Here, we investigated the cortical language network at rest and during an auditory covert naming task in five bilaterally anophthalmic subjects, who have never received visual input. When listening to auditory definitions and covertly retrieving words, these subjects activated lateral occipital cortex bilaterally in addition to the language areas activated in sighted controls. This activity was significantly greater than that present in a control condition of listening to reversed speech. The lateral occipital cortex was also recruited into a left-lateralized resting-state network that usually comprises anterior and posterior language areas. Levels of activation to the auditory naming and reversed speech conditions did not differ in the calcarine (striate) cortex. This primary 'visual' cortex was not recruited to the left-lateralized resting-state network and showed high interhemispheric correlation of activity at rest, as is typically seen in unimodal cortical areas. In contrast, the interhemispheric correlation of resting activity in extrastriate areas was reduced in anophthalmia to the level of cortical areas that are heteromodal, such as the inferior frontal gyrus. Previous imaging studies in the congenitally blind show that primary visual cortex is activated in higher-order tasks, such as language and memory to a greater extent than during more basic sensory processing, resulting in a reversal of the normal hierarchy of functional organization across 'visual' areas. Our data do not support such a pattern of organization in anophthalmia. Instead, the patterns of activity during task and the functional connectivity at rest are consistent with the known hierarchy of processing in these areas normally seen for vision. The differences in cortical organization between bilateral anophthalmia and other forms of congenital blindness are considered to be due to the total absence of stimulation in 'visual' cortex by light or retinal activity in the former condition, and suggests development of subcortical auditory input to the geniculo-striate pathway.
The interdependence of the development of the eye and oculomotor system during embryogenesis is currently unclear. The occurrence of clinical anophthalmia, where the globe fails to develop, permits us to study the effects this has on the development of the complex neuromuscular system controlling eye movements. In this study, we use very high-resolution T2-weighted imaging in five anophthalmic subjects to visualize the extraocular muscles and the cranial nerves that innervate them. The subjects differed in the presence or absence of the optic nerve, the abducens nerve, and the extraocular muscles, reflecting differences in the underlying disruption to the eye's morphogenetic pathway. The oculomotor nerve was present in all anophthalmic subjects and only slightly reduced in size compared to measurements in sighted controls. As might be expected, the presence of rudimentary eye-like structures in the socket appeared to correlate with development and persistence of the extraocular muscles in some cases. Our study supports in part the concept of an initial independence of muscle development, with its maintenance subject to the presence of these eye-like structures.
.FOXE3 is a lens-specific transcription factor with a highly conserved forkhead domain previously implicated in congenital primary aphakia and anterior segment dysgenesis. Here, we identify new recessive FOXE3 mutations causative for microphthalmia, sclerocornea, primary aphakia, and glaucoma in two extended consanguineous families by SNP array genotyping followed by a candidate gene approach. Following an additional screen of 236 subjects with developmental eye anomalies, we report two further novel heterozygous mutations segregating in a dominant fashion in two different families. Although the dominant mutations were penetrant, they gave rise to highly variable phenotypes including iris and chorioretinal colobomas, Peters' anomaly, and isolated cataract (cerulean type and early onset adult nuclear and cortical cataract). Using in situ hybridization in human embryos, we demonstrate expression of FOXE3 restricted to lens tissue, predominantly in the anterior epithelium, suggesting that the extratenticular phenotypes caused by FOXE3 mutations are most likely to be secondary to abnormal lens formation. Our findings suggest that mutations in FOXE3 can give rise to a broad spectrum of eye anomalies, largely, but not exclusively related to lens development, and that both dominant and recessive inheritance patterns can be represented. We suggest including FOXE3 in the diagnostic genetic screening for these anomalies