Department of Biological and Medical Sciences

Publications

  • Research Articles

    1. Harris SE, De Blasio MJ, Davis MA, Kelly A, Davenport HM, Wooding FBP, Blache D, Meredith D, Anderson M, Fowden AL, Limesand SW & Forhead AJ (2017) Hypothyroidism in utero stimulates pancreatic beta cell proliferation and hyperinsulinaemia in the ovine fetus during late gestation. Journal of Physiology (in press).

    2. Valenzuela OA, Jellyman JK, Allen VL, Holdstock NB, Forhead AJ & Fowden AL (2016) Effects of birth weight, sex and neonatal glucocorticoid overexposure on glucose-insulin dynamics in young adult horses.  Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (in press).

    3. De Blasio MJ, Boije M, Kempster SL, Smith GCS, Charnock-Jones DS, Denyer A, Hughes A, Wooding FBP, Blache D, Fowden AL & Forhead AJ (2016) Leptin matures aspects of lung structure and function in the ovine fetus. Endocrinology 157: 395-404.

    4. De Blasio MJ, Boije M, Bernstein BS, Davies KL, Plein A, Kempster SL, Smith GCS, Charnock-Jones DS, Blache D, Wooding FBP, Giussani DA, Fowden AL & Forhead AJ (2015) Developmental expression and glucocorticoid control of the leptin receptor in fetal lung. PLoS One 10(8): e0136115.

    5. Forhead AJ, Jellyman JK, De Blasio MJ, Johnson E, Giussani DA, Broughton Pipkin F & Fowden AL (2015) Maternal dexamethasone treatment alters circulating and tissue components of the renin-angiotensin system in the pregnant ewe and fetus. Endocrinology 156: 3038-3046.

    6. Jellyman JK, Valenzuela OA, Allen VL, Forhead AJ, Holdstock NB & Fowden AL (2015) Neonatal glucocorticoid overexposure programmes pituitary-adrenal function in ponies. Domestic Animal Endocrinology 50:45-49.

    7. Wooding FB, Kimura J & Forhead AJ (2014) Functional immunocytochemistry of Tragulus placenta: Implications for ruminant evolution. Placenta 35: 305-310. 

    8. Fowden AL & Forhead AJ (2012) Insulin deficiency alters the metabolic and endocrine responses to undernutrition in fetal sheep near term. Endocrinology 153: 4008-4018.

    9. Jellyman JK, Allen VL, Forhead AJ, Holdstock NB & Fowden AL (2012) Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function in pony foals after neonatal ACTH-induced glucocorticoid overexposure. Equine Veterinary Journal 44, Suppl. 41: 38-42.

    10. Jellyman JK, Cripps RL, Martin-Gronert MS, Giussani DA, Ozanne SE, Shen QW, Du M, Fowden AL & Forhead AJ (2012) Effects of cortisol and dexamethasone on insulin signalling pathways in skeletal muscle of the ovine fetus during late gestation. PLoS One 7(12): e52363.

    11. Forhead AJ, Jellyman JK, Gillham K, Ward JW, Blache D & Fowden AL (2011) Renal growth retardation following angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor antagonism is associated with increased AT2 receptor expression in fetal sheep during late gestation. Journal of Endocrinology 208: 137-145.

    12. Fowden AL & Forhead AJ (2011) Adrenal glands are essential for activation of glucogenesis during undernutrition in fetal sheep near term. American Journal of Physiology 300: E94-102.

    13. Kempster SL, Belteki G, Forhead AJ, Fowden AL, Catalano RD, Lam BY, McFarlane I, Charnock-Jones DS & Smith GCS (2011) Developmental control of the Nlrp6 inflammasome and a substrate, IL-18, in mammalian intestine. American Journal of Physiology 300: G253-263.

    14. Lanham SA, Fowden AL, Roberts C, Oreffo ROC, Cooper C & Forhead AJ (2011) Effects of hypothyroidism on the structure and mechanical properties of bone in the ovine fetus. Journal of Endocrinology 210: 189-198.

    15. Belteki G, Kempster SL, Forhead AJ, Giussani DA, Fowden AL, Curley A, Charnock-Jones DS & Smith GCS (2010) Paraoxonase-3, a putative circulating antioxidant, is systemically up-regulated in late gestation in the fetal rat, sheep, and human. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 95: 3798-3805.

    16. Franko KL, Forhead AJ & Fowden AL (2010) Differential effects of prenatal stress and glucocorticoid administration on postnatal growth and glucose metabolism in rats. Journal of Endocrinology 204: 319-329. 

    17. Wooding FB, Ramirez-Pinilla MP & Forhead AJ (2010) Functional studies of the placenta of the lizard Mabuya sp. (Scincidae) using immunocytochemistry. Placenta 31: 675-685.

    18. Forhead AJ, Cutts S, Matthews PA & Fowden AL (2009) Role of thyroid hormones in the developmental control of tissue glycogen in fetal sheep near term. Experimental Physiology 94: 1079-1087.

    19. Franko KL, Forhead AJ & Fowden AL (2009) Effects of maternal dietary manipulation during different periods of pregnancy on hepatic glucogenic capacity in fetal and pregnant rats near term. Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases 19: 555-562.

    20. Forhead AJ, Lamb CA, Franko KL, O’Connor DM, Wooding FBP, Cripps RL, Ozanne S, Blache D, Shen QW, Du M & Fowden AL (2008) Role of leptin in the regulation of growth and carbohydrate metabolism in the ovine fetus during late gestation. Journal of Physiology 586: 2393-2403.

    21. Holmes K, Charnock-Jones DS, Forhead AJ, Giusanni DA, Fowden AL, Licence D, Kempster S & Smith GCS (2008) Localization and control of expression of VEGF-A and the VEGFR-2 receptor in fetal sheep intestines. Pediatric Research 63: 143-148.

    22. Forhead AJ, Jellyman JK, Gardner DS, Giussani DA, Kaptein E, Visser TJ & Fowden AL (2007) Differential effects of maternal dexamethasone treatment on circulating thyroid hormone concentrations and tissue deiodinase activity in the pregnant ewe and fetus. Endocrinology 148: 800-805.

    23. Fowden AL & Forhead AJ (2007) Effects of pituitary hormone deficiency on growth and glucose metabolism of the sheep fetus. Endocrinology 148: 4812-4820.

    24. Franko KL, Giussani DA, Forhead AJ & Fowden AL (2007) Effects of dexamethasone on the glucogenic capacity of fetal, pregnant and non-pregnant adult sheep. Journal of Endocrinology 192: 67-73.

    25. O’Connor DM, Blache D, Hoggard N, Brookes E, Wooding FBP, Fowden AL & Forhead AJ (2007) Developmental control of plasma leptin and adipose leptin mRNA in the ovine fetus during late gestation: role of glucocorticoids and thyroid hormones. Endocrinology 148: 3750-3757.

    26. Wooding FBP, Dantzer VB, Klisch K, Jones CJ & Forhead AJ (2007) Glucose transporter 1 localisation throughout pregnancy in the carnivore placenta: light and electron microscope studies. Placenta 28: 453-464.

    27. Wooding FBP, Kimura J, Fukuta K & Forhead AJ (2007) A light and electron microscopical study of the Tragulid (Mouse Deer) placenta. Placenta 28: 1039-1048.

    28. Forhead AJ, Curtis K, Kaptein E, Visser TJ & Fowden AL (2006) Developmental control of iodothyronine deiodinases by cortisol in the ovine fetus and placenta near term. Endocrinology 147: 5988-5994.

    29. Ward JW, Forhead AJ, Wooding FBP & Fowden AL (2006) Functional significance and cortisol dependence of the gross morphology of ovine placentomes during late gestation. Biology of Reproduction 74: 137-145.

    30. Fletcher AJW, Forhead AJ, Fowden AL, Ford WR, Nathanielsz PW & Giussani DA (2005) Effects of gestational age and cortisol treatment on ovine fetal heart function in a novel biventricular Langendorff preparation. Journal of Physiology 562: 493-505.

    31. Fowden AL, Gardner DS, Ousey JC, Giussani DA & Forhead AJ (2005) Maturation of pancreatic beta cell function in the fetal horse during late gestation. Journal of Endocrinology 186: 467-473.

    32. Giussani DA, Forhead AJ & Fowden AL (2005) Development of cardiovascular function in the horse fetus. Journal of Physiology 565: 1019-1030.

    33. Gnanalingham MG, Giussani DA, Sivathondan P, Forhead A, Stephenson T, Symonds ME & Gardner DS (2005) Chronic umbilical cord compression results in accelerated maturation of lung and brown adipose tissue in the sheep fetus during late gestation. American Journal of Physiology 289: E456-465.

    34. Gnanalingham MG, Mostyn A, Forhead A, Fowden A, Symonds ME & Stephenson T (2005) Increased uncoupling protein-2 mRNA abundance and glucocorticoid action in adipose tissue in the sheep fetus during late gestation is dependent on plasma cortisol and triiodothyronine. Journal of Physiology 567:283-292.

    35. Fahmi AI, Forhead AJ, Fowden AL & Vandenberg J (2004) Cortisol influences the ontogeny of both alpha and beta subunits of the cardiac sodium channel in fetal sheep. Journal of Endocrinology 180: 449-455.

    36. Forhead AJ & Fowden AL (2004) Role of angiotensin II in the pressor response to cortisol in fetal sheep during late gestation. Experimental Physiology 89: 323-329.

    37. Forhead AJ, Ousey JC, Allen WR & Fowden AL (2004) Postnatal insulin secretion and sensitivity after manipulation of fetal growth by embryo transfer in the horse. Journal of Endocrinology 181: 459-467.

    38. Coomer RPC, Forhead AJ, Bathe AP & Head MJ (2003) Plasma angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) concentration in Thoroughbred racehorses. Equine Veterinary Journal 35: 96-98.

    39. Forhead AJ, Poore KR, Mapstone J & Fowden AL (2003) Developmental regulation of hepatic and renal gluconeogenic enzymes by thyroid hormones in fetal sheep during late gestation. Journal of Physiology 548: 941-947.

    40. Giussani DA, Forhead AJ, Gardner DS, Fletcher AJW, Allen WR & Fowden AL (2003) Postnatal cardiovascular function after manipulation of fetal growth by embryo transfer in the horseJournal of Physiology 547: 67-76.

    41. Lisle SJM, Lewis RM, Petry CJ, Ozanne SE, Hales CN & Forhead AJ (2003) Effect of maternal iron restriction during pregnancy on renal morphology in the adult rat offspring. British Journal of Nutrition 90: 33-39.

    42. Mostyn A, Pearce S, Budge H, Elmes M, Forhead AJ, Fowden AL, Stephenson T & Symonds ME (2003) Influence of cortisol on adipose tissue development in the fetal sheep during late gestation. Journal of Endocrinology 176: 23-30.

    43. Ousey JC, Forhead AJ, Rossdale PD, Grainger L, Houghton E & Fowden AL (2003) Ontogeny of uteroplacental progestagen production in pregnant mares during the second half of gestation. Biology of Reproduction 69: 540-548.

    44. Zimmermann H, Gardner DS, Jellyman J, Fowden AL, Giussani DA & Forhead AJ (2003) Effect of dexamethasone on pulmonary and renal angiotensin-converting enzyme concentration in fetal sheep during late gestation. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 189: 1467-1471.

    45. Clarke KA, Ward JW, Forhead AJ, Giussani DA & Fowden AL (2002) Regulation of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11ß-HSD2) activity in ovine placenta by fetal cortisol. Journal of Endocrinology 172: 527-534.

    46. Forhead AJ & Fowden AL (2002) Effects of thyroid hormones on pulmonary and renal angiotensin-converting enzyme concentrations in fetal sheep near term. Journal of Endocrinology 173: 143-150.

    47. Forhead AJ, Li J, Gilmour RS & Fowden AL (2002) Thyroid hormones and the mRNA of the growth hormone receptor and insulin-like growth factors in skeletal muscle of fetal sheep. American Journal of Physiology 282: E80-86.

    48. Forhead AJ, Thomas L, Crabtree J, Hoggard N, Gardner DS, Giussani DA & Fowden AL (2002) Plasma leptin concentration in fetal sheep during late gestation: ontogeny and effects of glucocorticoids. Endocrinology 143: 1166-1173.

    49. Fowden AL, Ousey JC, Forhead AJ, Rossdale PD, Grainger L & Houghton E (2002) Uteroplacental production of 5α-pregnane-3,20-dione (5αDHP) in pregnant mares. Theriogenology 58: 821-824.

    50. Lewis RM, Forhead AJ, Petry CJ, Ozanne SE & Hales CN (2002) Long-term programming of blood pressure by maternal dietary iron restriction in the rat. British Journal of Nutrition 88: 283-290.

    51. Li J, Forhead AJ, Dauncey MJ, Gilmour RS & Fowden AL (2002) Control of growth hormone receptor and insulin-like growth factor-I expression by cortisol in ovine fetal skeletal muscle. Journal of Physiology 541: 581-589.

    52. O’Connor SJ, Fowden AL, Holdstock N, Giussani DA & Forhead AJ (2002) Developmental changes in pulmonary and renal angiotensin-converting enzyme concentration in fetal and neonatal horses. Reproduction, Fertility and Development 14: 413-417.

    53. Poore KR, Forhead AJ, Gardner DS, Giussani DA & Fowden AL (2002) The effects of birth weight on basal cardiovascular function in pigs at 3 months of age. Journal of Physiology 539: 969-978.

    54. Forhead AJ, Gulati V, Poore KR & Fowden AL (2001) Ontogeny of pulmonary and renal angiotensin-converting enzyme in pigs. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 185: 127-133.

    55. Fowden AL, Mapstone J & Forhead AJ (2001) Regulation of glucogenesis by thyroid hormones in fetal sheep during late gestation. Journal of Endocrinology 170: 461-469.

    56. Fletcher AJW, Goodfellow MR, Forhead AJ, Gardner DS, McGarrigle HHG, Fowden AL & Giussani DA (2000) Low doses of dexamethasone suppress pituitary-adrenal function but augment the glycemic response to acute hypoxemia in fetal sheep during late gestation. Pediatric Research 47: 684-691.

    57. Forhead AJ, Broughton Pipkin F & Fowden AL (2000) Effect of cortisol on blood pressure and the renin-angiotensin system in fetal sheep during late gestation. Journal of Physiology 526: 167-176.

    58. Forhead AJ, Broughton Pipkin F, Taylor PM, Baker K, Balouzet V, Giussani DA & Fowden AL (2000) Developmental changes in blood pressure and the renin-angiotensin system in Pony fetuses during the second half of gestation. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility Supplement 56: 693-703.

    59. Forhead AJ, Gillespie CE & Fowden AL (2000) Role of cortisol in the ontogenic control of pulmonary and renal angiotensin-converting enzyme in fetal sheep near term. Journal of Physiology 526: 409-416.

    60. Forhead AJ, Li J, Saunders JC, Dauncey MJ, Gilmour RS & Fowden AL (2000) Control of ovine hepatic growth hormone receptor and insulin-like growth factor-I by thyroid hormones in uteroAmerican Journal of Physiology 278: E1166-1174.

    61. Fowden AL, Forhead AJ, White KL & Taylor PM (2000) Equine uteroplacental metabolism at mid and late gestation. Experimental Physiology 85: 539-545.

    62. Fowden AL, Taylor PM, White KL & Forhead AJ (2000) Ontogenic and nutritionally-induced changes in fetal metabolism in the horse. Journal of Physiology 528: 209-219.

    63. Schmidt M, Sangild PT, Jacobsen H, Fowden AL, Forhead AJ, Avery B & Greve T (2000) Blood chemistry, nutrient metabolism and organ weights in fetal and newborn calves derived from in vitro produced bovine embryos. Biology of Reproduction 62: 1495-1504.

    64. Fowden AL, Forhead AJ, Bloomfield M, Taylor PM & Silver M (1999) Pancreatic α cell function in the fetal foal during late gestation. Experimental Physiology 84: 697-705.

    65. Forhead AJ, Li J, Gilmour RS & Fowden AL (1998) Control of hepatic insulin-like growth factor-II gene expression by thyroid hormones in fetal sheep near term. American Journal of Physiology 275: E149-156.

    66. Forhead AJ, Melvin R, Balouzet V & Fowden AL (1998) Developmental changes in plasma angiotensin-converting enzyme concentration in fetal and neonatal lambs. Reproduction, Fertility and Development 10: 393-398.

    67. Forhead AJ, Broughton Pipkin F, Sutherland M & Fowden AL (1997) Changes in the maternal and fetal renin-angiotensin systems in response to angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockade and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition in pregnant sheep during late gestation. Experimental Physiology 82: 761-776.

    68. Forhead AJ & Dobson H (1997) Plasma glucose and cortisol responses to exogenous insulin in fasted donkeys. Research in Veterinary Science 62: 265-269.

    69. Fowden AL, Forhead AJ, Silver M & Macdonald AA (1997) Glucose, lactate and oxygen metabolism in the fetal pig during late gestation. Experimental Physiology 82: 171-182.

    70. Forhead AJ, Whybrew K, Hughes P, Broughton Pipkin F, Sutherland M & Fowden AL (1996) Comparison of angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockade and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition in pregnant sheep during late gestation. British Journal of Pharmacology 119: 393-401.

    71. Fowden AL, Szemere J, Hughes P, Gilmour RS & Forhead AJ (1996) The effects of cortisol on the growth rate of the sheep fetus during late gestation. Journal of Endocrinology 151: 97-105.

    72. Forhead AJ, Fowden AL, Silver M, Hughes P, Broughton Pipkin F & Sutherland MF (1995) Haemodynamic responses to an angiotensin II receptor antagonist (GR117289) in maternal and fetal sheep. Experimental Physiology 80: 285-298.

    73. Forhead AJ, Smart D, Smith RF & Dobson H (1995) Transport-induced stress responses in fed and fasted donkeys. Research in Veterinary Science 58: 144-151.

    74. Forhead AJ, French J, Ikin P, Fowler JN & Dobson H (1994) Relationship between plasma insulin and triglyceride concentrations in hypertriglyceridaemic donkeys. Research in Veterinary Science 56: 389-392.

    75. Forhead AJ, Smart D, Smith RF & Dobson H (1994) Endocrine and metabolic responses to transportation in peri-parturient donkeys. Animal Reproduction Science 36: 315-327.

    76. Smart D, Forhead AJ, Smith RF & Dobson H (1994) Transport stress delays the oestradiol-induced LH surge by a non-opioidergic mechanism in the early postpartum ewe. Journal of Endocrinology 142: 447-451.

    77. Smart D, Singh I, Smith RF, Forhead AJ & Dobson H (1994) The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in post-partum ewes. Animal Reproduction Science 35: 223-229.


    Review articles

    1. Fowden AL, Valenzuela OA, Vaughan OR, Jellyman JK & Forhead AJ (2016) Glucocorticoid programming of intrauterine development. Domestic Animal Endocrinology 56: Suppl S121-S132.

    2. Fowden AL & Forhead AJ (2015) Glucocorticoids as regulatory signals during intrauterine development. Experimental Physiology 100: 1477-1487.

    3. Fowden AL, Forhead AJ, Sferruzzi-Perri AN, Burton GJ & Vaughan OR (2015) Endocrine regulation of placental phenotype. Placenta 29: S50-S59.

    4. Forhead AJ & Fowden AL (2014) Thyroid hormones in fetal growth and prepartum maturation. Journal of Endocrinology 221: R87-R103.

    5. Fowden AL, Jellyman JK, Valenzuela OA & Forhead AJ (2013) Nutritional programming of intrauterine development: a concept applicable to the horse? Journal of Equine Veterinary Science 33: 295-304.

    6. Sferruzzi-Perri AN, Vaughan OR, Forhead AJ & Fowden AL (2013) Hormonal and nutritional drivers of intrauterine growth. Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care 16: 298-309.

    7. Fowden AL & Forhead AJ (2012) Endocrine interactions in the control of fetal growth. In Maternal and Child Nutrition: The First 1,000 Days. Eds Bhatia J, Bhutta ZA & Kalhan SC. Nestle Nutrition Institute Workshop Series 74, pp. 93-104.

    8. Fowden AL, Forhead AJ & Ousey JC (2012) Endocrine adaptation in the foal over the perinatal period. Equine Veterinary Journal 44, Suppl. 41: 130-139.

    9. Forhead AJ & Fowden AL (2011) Chapter 7, The consequences for preterm infants of antenatal glucocorticoid treatment. In Birth Rites and Rights. Eds Ebtehaj F, Herring J, Johnson MH & Richards M. Hart Publishing, pp. 129-149.

    10. Fowden AL, Ward JW, Wooding FBP & Forhead AJ (2010) Developmental programming of the ovine placenta. In Reproduction in Domestic Animals VII, Eds Lucy MC, Pate JC, Spencer TE & Smith MF, Nottingham University Press, pp. 41-57.

    11. Vaughan OR, Forhead AJ & Fowden AL (2010) Chapter 14, Glucocorticoids and placental programming. In The Placenta and Human Developmental Programming. Eds Burton GJ, Barker DJP, Moffett A & Thornburg K. Cambridge University Press, pp. 175-187.

    12. Forhead AJ & Fowden AL (2009) The hungry fetus? Role of leptin as a nutritional signal before birth. Journal of Physiology 587: 1145-1152.

    13. Fowden AL & Forhead AJ (2009) Hormones as epigenetic signals in developmental programming. Experimental Physiology 94: 607-625.

    14. Fowden AL & Forhead AJ (2009) Endocrine regulation of feto-placental growth. Hormone Research 72: 257-265.

    15. Forhead AJ & Fowden AL (2008) Role of thyroid hormones in the control of fetal growth and maturation. Havemeyer Foundation Monograph Series 21: 62-66.

    16. Fowden AL, Forhead AJ, Coan PM & Burton GJ (2008) The placenta and intrauterine programming. Journal of Neuroendocrinology 20: 439-450.

    17. Fowden AL, Forhead AJ & Ousey JC (2008) The endocrinology of equine parturition. Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology and Diabetes 116: 393-403.

    18. Fowden AL, Wooding FBP, Constancia M & Forhead AJ (2008) Regulation of placental nutrient transfer capacity. Havemeyer Foundation Monograph Series 21: 53-57.

    19. Fowden AL, Giussani DA & Forhead AJ (2006) Intrauterine programming of physiological systems: causes and consequences. Physiology 21: 29-37.

    20. Fowden AL, Ward JW & Forhead AJ (2006) Chapter 10, Control of fetal metabolism: relevance to developmental origins of health and disease. In Developmental Origins of Health and Disease. Eds. Gluckman PD & Hanson MA. Cambridge University Press, pp. 143-158.

    21. Fowden AL, Ward JW, Wooding FPB, Forhead AJ & Constancia M (2006) Programming placental nutrient transfer capacity. Journal of Physiology 572: 5-15.

    22. Fowden AL, Giussani DA & Forhead AJ (2005) Endocrine and metabolic programming during intrauterine development. Early Human Development 81: 723-734. 

    23. Fowden AL & Forhead AJ (2004) Endocrine mechanisms of intrauterine programming. Reproduction 127: 515-526.

    24. Fowden AL, Ousey JC & Forhead AJ (2004) Nutritive and endocrine functions of the equine placenta. Proceedings of a Workshop on the Equine Placenta Eds. Powell DG, Furry D & Hale G. University of Kentucky, pp. 36-41.

    25. Forhead AJ, Prentice PM, Wooding FBP, Hoggard N & Fowden AL (2003) Is leptin a nutritional signal in the fetus? Havemeyer Foundation Monograph Series 10: 81-85.

    26. Fowden AL, Ward J & Forhead AJ (2003) Comparative aspects of fetal metabolism. Havemeyer Foundation Monograph Series 10: 52-54.

    27. Fowden AL & Forhead AJ (2001) Chapter 10, The role of hormones in intrauterine development. In Fetal Origins of Cardiovascular and Lung Disease. Ed. Barker DJP. NIH Monographs, pp. 199-228.

    28. Fowden AL, Ousey JC & Forhead AJ (2001) Comparative aspects of prepartum maturation: provision of nutrients. Pferdehilkunde 17: 653-658.

    29. Fowden AL, Li J & Forhead AJ (1998) Glucocorticoids and the preparation for life after birth: are there long-term consequences of the life insurance? Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 57: 113-122.