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PhD, MSc, BSC
The Oxford School of Hospitality Management
Oxford Brookes Business School
+44 (0) 1865 483832
Clerci 2.31, Headington
Professor Altinay, Research Lead of Oxford School of Hospitality Management, is the Director of the Centre for International Tourism and Events Management Research (CITEM). Professor Altinay is also the Editor-in-Chief of the Service Industries Journal. A researcher of international renown, Altinay enjoys a vast network of international collaborative partnerships with organisations including Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong and the L.N Gumilyov Eurasian National University, Kazakhstan.
Altinay was a member of the Business & Economics Panel in Research Assessment Exercise (RAE) 2014 in Hong Kong. He sits on the editorial boards of more than twelve journals including Journal of Business Research and Journal of Services Marketing. He is also the Associate Editor, Europe, for Journal of Service Theory and Practice JSTP (formerly MSQ) and International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management. Altinay has strong record of attracting blue chip external funding, including funding from the ESRC (Economic and Social Research Council) and the British Academy. Altinay has co-authored strategic management, entrepreneurship and research methods textbooks.
Altinay’s research interests are in the areas of entrepreneurship, strategic alliances and international business. Using primarily qualitative methods as well as mixed methods, he is particularly interested in how entrepreneurs start up and develop their businesses and also how firms establish partnerships internationally. His work has been published in Journal of Business Research, International Small Business Journal, Journal of Small Business Management, Journal of Services Marketing, The Service Industries Journal, Annals of Tourism Research and Tourism Management.
Altinay's research areas are listed below:
Entrepreneurship and Small Business ManagementThis research area is concerned with the interaction between culture and small business growth. It is also related to the role of small hospitality and tourism firms in tackling the loneliness of elderly and enhancing their social wellbeing.
Internationalisation of OrganisationsThis is concerned principally with socio-cultural issues associated with the management of strategic alliances and establishing international partnerships and has contributed to the understanding of identifying and selecting franchise partners in different country markets.
Alleviating social isolation in the elderly
A study of older people’s use of hospitality services in Oxford initially prompted CITEM Co-Director Prof. Levent Altinay to develop this research stream. Events such as ‘classic coffee mornings’, held in hospitality outlets such as local cafés and restaurants, provided a focus to understanding people’s motivations for attending such gatherings and how these and similar events could be enriched to offer better social support for elderly people.
Like the UK, Hong Kong and China are experiencing a demographic imbalance caused by a rapidly ageing population. It is clear that innovative solutions are needed to combat elderly social isolation, not least since the existing research base indicates that such isolation leads to a number of related mental and physical health problems. This in turn leads to undue pressure on primary health care services, as elderly people present with complaints of loneliness. CITEM’s PhD student Kuo Feng is currently researching the role of hospitality and cultural activity in curtailing social isolation in elderly populations across China – particularly within luxury senior living facilities. CITEM’s ambition is to extend this activity into Eurasia, a chronically under-researched region, focusing on countries such as Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan where the policy and infrastructure surrounding older people’s wellbeing is far less developed than in countries such as the UK. Whilst opportunities for older people are still lacking in the UK, there is a greater commitment to tackling the issue from Government and third sector services. Our initial work with the Eurasian National University, Kazakhstan, has shown that there is untapped potential for collaboration between sectors, and that hospitality services could play a role in delivering solutions to combat elderly loneliness.
The ESRC funded project entitled “Socio-cultural factors, ethnic minority entrepreneurial orientation and firm growth: a comparative study of Turkish and Chinese small firms in the UK” has been successfully completed. As part of project:
o The findings of the study have been disseminated at an academic conference and a practitioner/policy conference organised and hosted by Mr Andy Love, Edmonton MP, Chair of All Party Parliamentary Small Business Group (APPSBG).
o A report summarising the key findings of the study has been given to Mr Andy Love, Association of Community Based Business Advice (ACBBA), Federation of Small Business, Turkish Cypriot Chamber of Commerce and North London Business.
o The findings of the study have also been disseminated through ethnic (Turkish and Chinese) media and Engage Magazine in the form of short bulletins and articles and through the websites of ACBBA’s, Oxford Brookes, Royal Holloway, University of London, and London School of Economics and Political Science. ‘Ethnic accountants’ have also been influential to ‘pass the message across’ to business owners.
o A brief summary of the research findings has been circulated to the following policy makers, enterprise/business associations and leading figures in the ethnic communities including:
o Editor, London Turkish Gazette (a Turkish newspaper in London)
o Councillor (Turkish Cypriot origin), Edmonton
o CEO Dragonpage (a Chinese community-based organisation)
o Editor, Sing Tao Daily (a leading Chinese newspaper in London)
o Research Manager, Chinese in Britain Forum
o Director, United Asia Ltd (a Chinese consultancy company)
o Manager, Cage Consulting (a Chinese community-based organisation)
o Edmonton MP, chair of All Party Parliamentary Small Business Group (APPSBG)
o Manager of Association of Community Based Business Advice (ACBBA)
o London Policy Manager, Federation of Small Business
o Head of Turkish Cypriot Chamber of Commerce
o Head of Business Growth, North London Business.
In particular, the following users have taken on board our research findings and started to develop more effective training programmes for ethnic small businesses:
o The Manager of the Association of Community Based Advisors has shared the research findings with the advisors of the association which provides business support to the ethnic business owners. The findings have been adopted by this association in order to effectively target and support firms with growth potential as well as develop training programmes based on the needs of ethnic minority firms.
o The findings of the study created an awareness of the current problems of Turkish and Chinese owned businesses in London. As a result, the London Policy Manager of the Federation of Small Business is now working with the London Development Agency, Business Link and the Mayor’s Office to develop better business support and an advisory service for ethnic minority owned SMEs.
o The findings of the study provided an outline of the nature and need of Turkish businesses. These findings are being adopted by Business Growth, North London Business to develop better business support and advisory services for Turkish businesses which are investing and expanding into the UK market.
This paper combines agency theory and social exchange theoretical perspectives to examine opportunistic behaviour in hospitality franchise agreements. It identifies and analyses the opportunistic behaviour of both franchisors and franchisees through a qualitative study of Turkish hospitality franchisees. A model of opportunistic behaviour and social exchange is developed from the study for further empirical testing. The model depicts different categories of franchisee behaviour, how franchisee behaviour is influenced by the behaviour of franchisors, the relevant characteristics of social exchange between franchisors and franchisees and the outcomes of those exchanges. As such, the study provides a complementary perspective of franchisee opporutunism and exchange relationships.
Cyprus' volatile political environment lends an interesting case for enhancing knowledge on the politics of tourism. The importance of tourism for the island's economy makes the study of the political influences on the new-found goal of sustainable tourism development imperative. This paper investigates the political factors influencing sustainable tourism implementation in Cyprus. Analysis is informed by Lukes' conceptualisation of power relations. Drawing on semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders, the findings suggest that sustainable tourism implementation continues to be problematic, given Cyprus' complex political context, which is highly susceptible to external axes of power. The strong influence of the socio-cultural environment on the politics driving sustainable tourism inhibits its effective implementation. This paper proposes a theoretical framework and a methodology for studying the politics of sustainable tourism development.
The paper aims to evaluae the antecedents of franchise relationship development from the perspective of a sample of Chinese and Turkish franchisees. This paper advances franchsiing literature by offerin a combined and complementary theoretical persepctive to our understanding of the influence of power and social investments in relationship development between franchisees and franchisors. In particular, the study identifies role performance of franchsor and communication with franchisees as the key antecedents of relationship development.
This paper aims to establsh the relationship between the antecedents of trust, trust itself, and franchisee satisfaction. Taking its cue from power-dependence, international business, and social exchange theories, the paper contributes to the franchise literature by offering a more comprehensive theoretical persepctive to aid understanding of trust development in, and satisfaction with franchise partnerships. The study provides empirical evidence of the impactof the franchisor's role performance and cultural sensitivity on franchisees' trust and satisfaction with franchise partnerships. Furthermore, this research demonstrates the central role of communication in the development of franchisees' trust.
Purpose – The main aim of this paper is to introduce the articles of this issue.
Design/methodology/approach – A critical content analysis of the papers selected for the issue was undertaken.
Findings – The final articles for this issue examine a range of responsible business practices within hospitality and tourism businesses in diverse country settings. In addition, each article is followed by a commentary from an industry representative who reflects on the key message and/or value of the article for industry practice.
Research limitations/implications – Although only one article examined the role of education specifically, collectively the articles in this special theme edition point to the critical role of education in implementing responsible business practices in the near future, as well as for ensuring the sustainability of these practices in the years to come. Additionally, these articles highlight the need for greater cooperation between different hospitality and tourism stakeholders in the development and implementation of responsible business practices.
Originality/value – The current theme issue explores emerging issues in the implementation of responsible business practice in the context of hospitality and tourism industries in different country contexts.
This paper reviews the theoretical underpinnings of co-production and co-creation and discusses these service production approaches in a hotel context. Based on a synthesis of the literature, we present a co-production to co-creation matrix and offer several propositions: (1) the co-production versus co-creation concepts create a continuum rather than a dichotomy; (2) service innovation and the customisation of service production are conceived as lying somewhere between co-production and cocreation on this continuum; and (3) the key factors that define a typology of service production types (co-production, service innovation, customisation, and co-creation) include the primary value-creation driver and customer involvement/dialogue type. We further discuss the benefits for hotels of moving from co-production to co-creation on this continuum. As one of the first papers to discuss co-creation in hospitality, it contributes to the field by providing specific theoretical and practical implications for how hotel companies can move from co-production to co-creation.
This paper identifies and evaluates the partner selection approaches, processes and criteria use by tourism franchisees to select their franchisor partners. A qualitative study of a sample of Turkish franchisees identifies the partner selection criteria and two distinct approaches used to select franchisor partners. The study contributes to our understanding of franchisee partner selection by demonstrating how the selection criteria, approaches and processes impact on franchisee satisfaction post contract signature. In addition, a framework that depicts the relationship between the criteria, approaches and processes is developed from the study. The study yields a number of implications particularly for prospective franchisees interested in joining a franchise network.
Purpose - This paper aims to identify the partner selection criteria employed both by franchisors and franchisees in master franchise agreements and evaluate how different selection criteria interact within the selection process and influence the decisions taken. Design/methodology/approach - A single embedded case study of an international hotel firm was the focus of the enquiry. Interviews and document analysis were used as the data collection techniques. Findings - The findings reveal that the establishment of franchise partnership involves a mutual and careful evaluation between franchisors and franchisees to assess whether their partnership criteria are compatible. The partner selection approach determines the extent of importance attached to different task- and partner-related selection criteria. In addition, the study identifies the role that different selection criteria play at different stages of the process. Research limitations/implications - The findings are based on a single case study in the international hotel industry and therefore may not begeneralisable to other firms or industry sectors. Moreover, the study comprised master franchise agreements, and this contextual variable may impact on the findings determined. Practical implications - This paper illuminates the challenges both international franchisors and franchisees face in selecting their partners and proposes that both franchisors and franchisees should employ clearly defined selection criteria, utilise a defined selection process and choose their selection approach carefully in recruiting partners. Originality/value - This paper cross-fertilises the strategic alliance and franchise literature to evaluate the interplay of partner selection criteria, process, selection approach and international franchise recruitment. The findings contribute to the understanding of a largely neglected area, franchise partner selection and recruitment, by taking a holistic approach and incorporating the views of both franchisors and franchisees.
The 2010 UK General Election was unique in that for the first time, televised leaders' debates took place. The impact of these plus paid for advertising and uncontrolled events are considered, and their likely affect on the image of Brown, Cameron, and Clegg, the three main party leaders, discussed. Then, using a brand-mapping approach, we analyse changes to consumer perceptions of the leader brands from just prior to the first debate through to the election day itself, Thursday 6 May. Specifically, we consider whether, over the campaign, the number of leader associations increases, which policies were associated with which leader, and the favourability of the leaders associations. We then use a measure of brand-image strength to chart overall changes to the leaders. Finally, we consider how Brown's image was affected by the so-called"Duffy" affair.
This paper seeks to evaluate the influence of the entrepreneurs' educational backgrounds, the firm's target market, and the sector of operations on the marketing practices of Turkish ethnic minority businesses. The paper reports and analyses the findings of 227 face-to-face structured interviews with Turkish small business owners. The findings of the study indicate that Turkish ethnic minority businesses operating in different sectors use both transactional and relational approaches to marketing. Their choices of pursuing different marketing strategies are influenced by the entrepreneurs' educational backgrounds, the firm's target market, and the sector of operations.
This paper investigates ways in which political obstacles inhibit the formulation and implementation of sustainable tourism development in small-island developing states through the example of North Cyprus. The methodology draws on in-depth interviews and participant observation of significant actors in the tourism sector. The research findings suggest that understanding the intricate political system and power structure in a society is the key to understanding sustainable tourism policy development, planning and implementation. In the case of North Cyprus, policy development was found to be a product of political influence (referred to as ego-driven politics in the text), specifically the use of public resources as an instrument for political power, retention and that the politicisation of the public sector is the underlying cause of the weakened progress in sustainable tourism development. It is therefore essential to have a clear understanding of political issues, key political actors" interests and how to mitigate personal interests to facilitate and maintain sustainable tourism development in such small states.
Entrepreneurial orientation (EO) of ethnic minority small businesses (EMSBs) and its antecedents and consequences are under-researched. Grounded in ethnic entrepreneurship theory and the social embeddedness approach, this article examines the relationships of EMSBs" access to various networks, their EO and firm growth. Drawing on quantitative data collected through 258 face-toface structured interviews with Chinese- and Turkish-owned EMSBs in London, UK our findings reveal that family and co-ethnic advice and labour do not have a significant impact on firms" EO. Instead, both access to co-ethnic products and access to co-ethnic suppliers of utilities and facilities have a significant impact on firms" EO, which in turn has a significant positive effect on employment growth. Moreover, Chinese-owned EMSBs demonstrate a higher level of EO and pursue different paths to growth (that is, they are more likely to grow through acquiring more business premises) compared with Turkish-owned EMSBs. The findings have important implications for the understanding of growth patterns of EMSBs, particularly the role of EO in the EMSBs" break-out strategies and growth.
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to address the cultural challenges of gaining and maintaining qualitative research access into ethnic small firms. In particular, it evaluates the influence of cultural affinity - between researchers and business owners - on gaining and maintaining access into ethnic minority owned firms. Design/methodology/approach - This paper reflects on the experiences of facilitating and maintaining research access into a sample of 258 small Turkish and Chinese ethnic minority businesses in London. Findings - This paper study illustrates that researchers need to demonstrate cultural awareness to ethnic business owners and understand the socio-cultural environment in which their firms operate in order to be able to gain and maintain research access. Research limitations/implications - Data collection is limited to Turkish and Chinese ethnic minority owned businesses in London, and other ethnic entrepreneurs are excluded. Therefore, care should be taken in making generalisations from the sample. Practical implications - This paper identifies a number of important skills which can be exploited in negotiating and gaining research access. These are communication, interpersonal and cultural awareness skills. Originality/value - This paper addresses a neglected area in the research process, namely research access, which has important implications for the type of data collected, sampling and data collection techniques. The paper thus identifies -œresearch access- as an important element of research design.
"This paper evaluates the effectiveness of post merger management of cultural integration in the hotel industry. Using a mixed method design incorporating a structured card sort of possible feelings and subsequent in-depth interview,data were collected from Head Office employees. Findings highlight the importance of human dynamics of a merger, emphasising the importance of strong leadership, open and honest communication as pre-cursors to mutual learning and suggesting the need for a pre merger cultural audit. Merging two organisations involves the dedication of a remarkable level of resources and activities both before and after the M&As and yet, a successful outcome is uncertain and it is subject to effective management of cultural integration."
The Cyprus tourism industry has had to be sensitive to the political problems between Turkish and Greek Cypriots. Federation is considered to be a partial solution to the problems. This paper evaluates the influence of politics and nationalism on the tourism planning and development under a possible federal constitution. The views of Turkish and Greek Cypriot participants from private and public organizations are studied through semistructured interviews. The findings suggest that any future planning and development is likely to be a complex undertaking, as the two societies tend to have different sets of objectives and expectations.
This paper fills a gap in the research undertaken into the role of intrapreneurs in the international franchise process of an organisation. The intrapreneurial role of organisational members in implementing franchising decisions in an international hotel group was investigated. Semi‐structured interviews, observations and document analysis were used as the data collection techniques. Findings suggest that human factors play an important role in the expansion process and, in a culturally diverse context, franchising is very much the concern of the development directors who provide the attributes of intrapreneurs externally in the market.
Invited keynote speaker to the International Conference of Young Scholars: ‘Innovative Economy of Kazakhstan: Sustainable Development in the conditions of Globalisation’, Organised in the frames of VI Astana Economic Forum, 21st of May, 2014. Invited keynote speaker at the 14th International Conference on Knowledge, Culture and Change in Organizations taking place at the Saïd Business School at the University of Oxford, August 4-5, 2014. Invited keynote speaker at the 3rd International Tourism Conference, Hungry, June, 2014. Invited to serve as a member of the Business & Economics Panel in the Research Assessment Exercise (RAE) 2014, by the University Grants Committee (UGC) of Hong Kong. Chosen as an Outstanding Reviewer by Emerald for the significant contribution made as a Reviewer to International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management throughout 2014. Chosen as an Outstanding Reviewer by Emerald for the significant contribution made as a Reviewer to Journal of Services Marketing throughout 2012. Invited Keynote Speaker at the International Conference on Management, Leadership and Innovation towards a Better Changing World, ‘Changing Nature of Management Research: Implications for Research Innovation’. Bucharest, Romania, 7-9th November, 2013. Invited speaker at The L.N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University, Astana, Kazakhstan, Research Seminar to the Faculty Deans in Social Sciences, ‘Research Strategies, Structures and Processes’, 3rd of October, 2013. Invited keynote speaker to the GIKA (Global Innovation and Knowledge Academy) Conference, Valencia, 9-11th July, 2013. Invited keynote speaker to the International Conference of Young Scholars: ‘Current Trends in Economics and Management: View of the Youth’, Organised in the frames of VI Astana Economic Forum, 22nd of May, 2013. Invited keynote speaker to the Franchising and Entrepreneurship Seminar, organised by the Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir, Turkey, 18th March, 2013. Opportunities and Challenges in Higher Education, PhD research seminar to PhD Students, Near East University, 27th Dec, 2012. Future of Hospitality and Tourism Research: How to gain and sustain competitive advantage, PhD seminar to PhD students, Eastern Mediterranean University, 24th Dec, 2012. Visiting Professor responsible for PhD student research methods training, The L.N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University, Astana, Kazakhstan, Years 2012-2014. Guest Speaker, Research Seminar on ‘Research Project Management: Learning from the experience of previous academic grant applications’, International Conference on Interdisciplinary Research in Education, Cyprus, 15-17th of May, 2012. Guest Speaker, Research Seminar on ‘Grounded Theory Analysis with an application to hospitality research’, London College of Fashion, 23rd February, 2012. Guest Speaker, Research Seminar entitled, ‘Publish or Perish’, Mahasarakham University, Thailand, 2nd February, 2012. Guest Speaker Disseminating the findings of the ESRC funded project ‘Ethnic Minority Entrepreneurship’, Romanian-American University, Bucharest, Romania, 12th January, 2012. Workshop on ‘How to Get Your Paper Published’, Romanian-American University, Bucharest, Romania, 13th January, 2012. Dissemination seminar on ‘Franchise Partner Selection and Relationship Development: Perspectives of Macau Franchisees’, Macau Institute, Macau, 2nd December, 2011. Guest speaker lecturing on ‘Socio-cultural Factors and Entrepreneurial Orientation of Ethnic Firms’, at Daniels College of Business, University of Denver, 18th Nov, 2011. Research Seminar to Business School Academics at IIMT (Indian Institute of Management and Technology) on ‘Getting your paper published’, 17th of May, 2011. Visiting Professor, College of Administrative Sciences and Economics, Business School, Koc University, Istanbul, Turkey, Years 2010-2012. A 2011 finalist for the Most Successful Turk Award in the UK. Visiting Professor, Faculty of Economics, Department of Business Studies and Environment, University of Piemonte Orientale (ranked 8th in Italy for the quality of research output and 1st amongst the newer Italian universities), Italy, 2009/2010. Visiting Speaker, Tourism Recreation and Sport Management Department Seminar Series, Seminar on ‘Linking Research to Curriculum Development and Delivery’, University of Florida 2011, March 21-23. Invited Research Seminar to the PhD students on ‘PhD Research Journey: Rhetoric and Realities’, Tourism Recreation and Sport Management Department Seminar Series, University of Florida 2011, March 21-23. Guest speaker at the seminar on ‘Franchise Partner Selection and Relationship Development’, Macau Institute, Macau, 2nd December, 2010. Research Seminar to the members of Faculty of Economics, Department of Business Studies and Environment, University of Piemonte Orientale on ‘how to get your academic papers published’, May, 2010.
Guest speaker at the AIM (Advanced Institute of Management) workshop on Research Bid Writing, jointly organised by Oxford Brookes University, Surrey and Kingston University Business Schools, “Learning from Experience”, 24th of October 2009, Oxford.
Visiting Lecturer responsible for Research Methods Teaching at Tourism School Sant Ignasi, Barcelona / Maastricht Business School, Maastricht, 2009/2010.
Presentation to a group of senior academics from Tourism School Sant Ignasi, Barcelona / Maastricht Business School, Maastricht on ‘Teaching Research Methods’, 3rd June 2009, Barcelona.
A dissemination workshop/seminar ‘Social Embeddedness and Entrepreneurial Orientation in Ethnic Small Firms in the UK’ at the London School of Economics and Political Science as part of China in Comparative perspective seminar series to which both academics and practitioners were invited, the research findings of the ESRC funded project were presented, 6th of October 2008.
Guest speaker at the University of Kent, Kent Business School, Hospitality Management Symposium, 2 June 2008, “Future of Hospitality Research”.
Guest speaker, at a practitioner and policy making conference organised by Andy Love, MP, head of small business parliamentary group, ‘Turkish speaking businesses in London’, June, 2007.
An invited lecture entitled ‘International Expansion of a Hotel Company: Challenges and Opportunities’ to a group of academics and practitioners at Finnmark University College at Norway. The lecture drew on PhD research findings, 2001, September.
An invited lecture entitled ‘Teaching and Learning Experience in the UK’ to a group of academics and students at Eastern Mediterranean University in Cyprus, 2004 June.
A seminar entitled ‘Opportunities for Collaborative Research’ to a group of academics at Americanos College in Cyprus, 2005 July.
Levent's research interests are in the areas of entrepreneurship, strategic alliances and international business. Using primarily qualitative methods as well as mixed methods, he is particularly interested in how entrepreneurs start up and develop their businesses and how firms establish partnerships internationally. He is a visiting Professor the Faculty of Economics, Department of Business Studies and Environment, University of Piemonte Orientale, Italy, Koc University, Istanbul, Turkey and The L.N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University, Astana, Kazakhstan. Levent was a member of the Business & Economics Panel in Research Assessment Exercise (RAE) 2014 in Hong Kong. He sits on the editorial boards of more than twelve journals including Journal of Services Marketing, The Service Industries Journal, Management Decision and International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management. He is the Associate Editor, Europe, for Journal of Service Theory and Practice JSTP.
Levent has been invited to give several keynote presentations and seminars in different countries. He has also chaired/co-chaired six international conferences and is the co-author of a hospitality management research methods, entrepreneurship and strategic management text books: Planning Research in Hospitality and Tourism (2016). Entrepreneurship in Hospitality and Tourism with Maureen Brookes (2015). Strategic Management for Hospitality and Tourism (2010).
Levent has strong record of attracting blue chip external funding, having secured funding from the ESRC and the British Academy as well as funding from Hong Kong Polytechnic University for an international collaborative project. His ESRC funded project aimed to investigate how entrepreneurs' socio-cultural backgrounds influence the entrepreneurial orientation of firms and how this in turn influences firm growth. This study was conducted with particular reference to Turkish and Chinese small firms in London, operating in a variety of sectors including manufacturing, retailing, and catering. Different stakeholder groups, including the Association of Community Based Advisors have taken the findings of the project on board and started to develop more effective training programmes for ethnic small businesses.
Levent has supervised seven PhDs to successful completion and is currently supervising students conducting research in entrepreneurship, internationalisation of firms, strategic alliances/partner selection and franchising.
The findings of the ESRC and British Academy Funded projects have been widely disseminated through community-based newspapers and magazines, websites, Below is a list of dissemination activities through publications in websites, community based newspapers and magazines.
Altinay, L. and Wang, C. (2008). “One size fits all enterprise policies cannot succeed”, ACCBA (Association of Community Based Business Advice) website http://www.acbba.org.uk/uploads/Article%20on%20Turkish%20and%20Chinese%20businesses%20research.pdf
Altinay, L. (2008) How to be a Brilliant Community Based Business Adviser, ACCBA (Association of Community Based Business Advice), An Epilogue to a published Reference Guide for New Professionals.
Wang and Altinay (2008). “Chinese businesses in London: An evolving business landscape” (in Chinese) The Epoch Times, 28th August.
Wang and Altinay (2008). “Career diversification of second-generation Chinese in London” (in Chinese). Sing Dao Daily, 9th/10th August.
Wang and Altinay (2008). “Chinese businesses in London: An evolving business landscape” School of Management website, Royal Holloway, University of London, 20th August.
Altinay and Wang (2008). “Are their voices being heard?” Engage UK, Issue 7, pp.74-75.
Altinay and Wang (2008). “Descriptive statistics (Last Part): Factors important to business success”, Toplum Postasi: Community Post, 17th July.
Altinay and Wang (2008). “Descriptive statistics (Part 2): Constraints on Growth” Toplum Postasi: Community Post, 10th July.
Altinay and Wang (2008). “Descriptive statistics (Part 1): Decision to start up business: Source of Capital and Advice” Toplum Postasi: Community Post, 3rd July.
Altinay and Wang (2008). “How do Turkish business owners develop relationship with their customers?” Toplum Postasi: Community Post, 26th June.
Altinay and Wang (2008). “Learning from successful Turkish and Chinese businessmen: Business start-up” Toplum Postasi: Community Post, 19th June.
Altinay and Wang (2008). “Small ethnic minority businesses’ battle for competition: Is labour shortage an issue?” Toplum Postasi: Community Post, 12th June.
Altinay and Wang (2008). “Are their voices being heard? Turkish and Chinese businesses in London” Toplum Postasi: Community Post, 5th June.
Altinay and Wang (2008). “Research confirms problems facing Turkish business” London Turkish Gazette, 29th May.
Altinay and Wang (2008). “Turkish speaking entrepreneurs at risk of being left behind”, London Turkish Gazette, 5th of July
Wang and Altinay (2006). “Chinese enterprises in the UK and the government support” (in Chinese). The Epoch Times, 21st September.
Altinay and Wang (2006). “£100k for Entrepreneurial Research: Turkish and Chinese Entrepreneurs in the UK”, Engage, UK, Issue 2, pp. 70.
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