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School of History, Philosophy and Culture
Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences
+44 (0)1865 483706
Headington Campus, Tonge Block,T530
Viviane Quirke has been researching and teaching at Oxford Brookes University since 2001. She had previously been a Research Associate on a Wellcome Trust Pilot Project at the Royal Institution in London. Her work has been supported by the Wellcome Trust, the European Science Foundation, the Chemical Heritage Foundation, and the British Council in partnership with the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, among others. She was educated at the University of Paris X and at Oxford University, where she completed her D.Phil. in Modern History in 2000.
Dr Quirke has supervised a number of projects at both Undergraduate and Postgraduate levels, on various aspects of the history of modern medicine, as well as on the history of the First and Second World Wars.
At PhD level, to date Dr Quirke has supervised to completion three projects, one as Second Supervisor (Jenny Wright, 'Public Health Women Doctors in England, 1974 to 1991: a case study', 2015), two as Director. Both were externally funded, the first by a Wellcome Trust Programme Grant (no 09568/Z/11/A) on which Dr Quirke has been co-investigator (Gilmour-Hamilton, 'A Cohort of One: Oral History and Cancer Research in Britain, 1970-2010', 2016); the second by an AHRC CDA with the Science Museum (Rushmore, 'Uses and Misuses of Chemicals in the British Home, c. 1930s-1980s', 2017).
Dr Quirke is also currently acting as Second Supervisor to another Wellcome Trust-funded PhD scholarship (Jane Freebody, '"What did they do all day?" Patient work, psychiatry and society in France and England, 1900-1940'.
Dr Quirke has acted as internal and external examiner on a number of occasions, in Britain and abroad. Topics examined have included the history of smallpox in 18th-century England; the Association of Parents of Backward Children and the legacy of eugenics in Britain, 1946-1960; the history of antimetabolites and their contribution to a rational approach to chemotherapy, 1935-1955.
History of science, technology and medicine in Britain, France and the USA in the late-nineteenth and twentieth centuries, with a special focus on the history of biomedicine, drug therapies and the pharmaceutical industry.
Dr Quirke's doctoral thesis compared the development of collaborative research networks between scientists and pharmaceutical companies in Britain and France in the twentieth century. It was published with Routledge as Collaboration in the Pharmaceutical Industry. Her current research areas are:
Dr Quirke was a co-applicant on a Wellcome Trust Strategic Award on 'Healthcare in Public and Private' (2007-2012), and has been co-investigator on a Wellcome Trust Programme Grant on 'Subjects' Narratives of Medical Research in Europe' (09568/Z/11/A). Recently she was awarded a grant from the Scientific Instrument Society for a study entitled: 'From Pharmaceutical Innovation to Public Engagement: Stephen Carter and teh Micrarium in Buxton'.
This paper examines the relationship between Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI), the company that discovered tamoxifen, and Dr Craig Jordan, who played a major part in its success as a breast cancer drug, and who worked as a consultant for the company, but without ever being paid a consultancy fee. Instead, ICI funded junior staff working in his laboratory on topics of his choice. They later paid his expenses as an expert witness in patent-litigation cases, as a result of which the US became a major lucrative market for tamoxifen, and ICI’s other anti-cancer drugs. This case study illustrates that, like consultants, drugs play an important part at the boundary between the academic and industrial spheres. However, even if it is blurred, the boundary remains. Owing to the secrecy that often surrounds industrial research, this boundary may lead to a different understanding of what constitutes innovation, and to different narratives with regard to respective contributions.
The forces that have shaped American medicine include a wide set of interrelated changes, among them the changing research, development, and marketing practices of the pharmaceutical industry. This article compares the research and development (R&D) and marketing strategies of the British group Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI, whose Pharmaceutical Division was spun off and merged with the Swedish company Astra to form AstraZeneca) and its French counterpart Rhône-Poulenc (now part of Sanofi-Aventis) in dealing with the American medical market. It examines how, in the process, the relationship between R&D and marketing was altered, and the firms themselves were transformed. The article also questions the extent to which their approaches to this market, one of the most significant markets for drugs in general, and for anticancer drugs in particular, became standardized in the period of "scientific marketing."