Go to the Students section
Go to the Staff section
Go to the Alumni section
Go to the Study here section
Go to the International section
Go to the About section
Go to the Research section
Go to the Business and Employers section
Go to the Support us section
These guidelines are for Brookes staff; they also apply to students who wish to use copyright material in coursework and in presentations.
PDFs and scans on Moodle - scans of book chapters and journal articles should not be uploaded to Moodle. For PDFs found online, you should provide links rather than uploading the PDFs into Moodle. You can do this via the Aspire reading list system, or you can put the links directly in Moodle. Library scanning service for Brookes staff - we will scan book chapters and journal articles for you to make available via your Moodle course. Using images in teaching and coursework Using film and video in teaching and coursework Lecture capture - there are some sorts of material you should not record using lecture capture. Providing photocopies for students Using Library online resources Putting e-journal articles in Moodle (and handing out printouts of e-journal articles) - this is not usually possible but check this section for further details. Instead of uploading e-journal articles you can put links to e-journal articles into your Moodle course or use the Aspire reading list system. Putting e-book chapters in Moodle - this is not possible but you can link to the e-book instead.
See also our guidance on Copyright - research and private study.
Copyright and publication - advice intended for students publishing their research with Get Published!
The advice on these web pages does not constitute formal legal advice. For other sources of guidance see the Intellectual Property Office or the Copyright User websites. The following resources are written specifically for universities: JISC Intellectual property rights in a digital world (quick guide)
For more detailed copyright information refer to the resources below:
You should only upload a PDF to a Moodle course if you know you have the permission of the copyright owner to do so.
If you find a PDF available online, you should provide a link to it rather than uploading the PDF into a Moodle course. You can do this using the
reading list system, or you can put the links directly into Moodle.
Scans provided by the Library scanning service should be made available through the links supplied by the service.
It is not possible for teaching staff to scan book chapters and journal articles and include the scans in a Moodle course. Under the terms of the Copyright Licensing Agency Licence, all scans of book chapters and journal articles for teaching
purposes must be provided via the
Library scanning service
and accessed via the links provided.
Further information and helpE-mail
The Library offers a scanning service for teaching staff - we will scan book chapters and journal articles that you need for your teaching. When we have done the scanning, we will send you a URL link to the scan. The scan is stored online in the
Copyright Licensing Agency Digital Content Store.
You can put the link directly into your Moodle course or you can use the link in an
reading list. To access the scan, you (and your students) will need to login with your Brookes number and password.
We will provide the link to the scan within 10 working days, subject to the availability of the material to be scanned.
The service will operate under the terms of the CLA Higher Education Licence.
The conditions include:
- limits on the amount of any one publication that may be copied (per module: one chapter or 10% of a book; one journal article from a journal issue)
- only material published in certain countries may be scanned: UK, US, Australia, Canada, and other countries on the
Scanning Mandate Territories
You may request material to be scanned which does not belong to the University but there is an extra copyright fee charged for this. The fee is about £20 for a book chapter, so we may decide to buy the book instead of paying the copyright fee.
Journal articles cost between £12 and £35; we may request that the copyright fee is paid by your department.
The scanning service is not usually available for material accessible online to Brookes staff and students.
Library scanning service request form (Word format).
Please send scanning request forms to
You may do a certain amount of photocopying to hand out to students. Check the
to see what is allowed under the terms of the CLA Licence.
Good practice guidelines
The CLA Licence is intended to broaden and enrich students’ learning experience, by enabling universities to provide greater and easier access to copyright materials than would otherwise be possible. However, this provision is not intended to be used
to create collections of extracts that cover substantively the same material as a standard textbook. These
(pdf) illustrate good practice in how to use the CLA Licence to support your course.
Further information and help
Lectures, seminars and classes
If you are delivering a lecture or seminar presentation, you may use any image to illustrate a point that you are making. You should always include an acknowledgement of the source of the image.
If you wish to use an image which does not illustrate a point in your teaching, you should only use an image where you have explicit permission for this sort of re-use - see guidelines below on Image sources and Finding images that are free to use.
Images in the VLE
If you use images in your teaching and you wish to make your lecture slides or teaching material available in your Brookes Virtual course for Brookes registered students, follow these guidelines.
You must set your lecture slides in a context that makes it clear how they relate to the teaching of the course. All the images in the slides should illustrate points you are making in your teaching.
If you provide other images in the VLE, you must relate them clearly to a particular learning activity or make it clear how they illustrate points in your teaching.
You should always include an acknowledgement of the source of the image.
The guidelines above are based on the legal exception of fair dealing with a work for the purpose of illustration for instruction.
Image sources for use in teaching The sites below contain images which may be used for teaching, in the VLE and for other educational purposes. They may only be used for teaching Brookes registered students; they should not be used on open web sites or MOOCs.
ARTstor - high quality art historical images useful for a wide range of subjects
Bridgeman education - art historical images useful for a wide range of subjects
British cartoon archive - cartoons from newspapers and other sources going back to the 19th century, particularly strong for politics and news coverage. Note: First-time users will need to register. To download images please first run a search. After searching, click on 'Use this image', select 'non-commercial educational context in the UK' (if appropriate), pick Brookes from the list of institutions and read and agree to the terms and conditions before proceeding. Please login with your Brookes username and password. You will then be presented with the option to download the image.
Finding images that are free to use If you want to find images for use on open web pages, or for MOOCs, or for publication, you will need to have permission from the rightsowner of the images.
There are a number of images and image sites on the internet where the rightsowners explicitly give permission for their images to be reused. You may use these images under the terms and conditions set by their rightsowners. Sometimes these sites will use Creative Commons licences.
Sites like Wikimedia Commons and Flickr contain images uploaded by contributors and often contain material that has been illegally copied. You should only use images from websites if you are confident that the person who uploaded the image is the person who created or owns the copyright in the image. Also, some non-UK websites may give copyright advice which does not apply in the UK.
More detailed guidance is available via the Moodle course Copyright and Publication; anyone at Brookes can enrol themselves on the course, which takes about an hour to complete.
See the following page for more advice: Intellectual Property Office Copyright Notice: digital images, photographs and the internet (PDF)
Further information and helpE-mail firstname.lastname@example.org
You may play films, video, DVDs and television programmes in lectures or seminars delivered to Brookes students.
You may copy clips to show in lectures and seminars in order to illustrate a point in your teaching. Any clips should be short and should be no longer than is necessary to illustrate the points you wish to make.
The Library subscribes to
Box of Broadcasts.
This service gives you access to thousands of recorded radio and TV programmes. It allows you to record programmes which will then be stored on the database. You can create clips and playlists of programmes or clips. You may use Box of Broadcasts to
show programmes to Brookes students for educational purposes.
Film, video, DVDs and television programmes in the VLE
You may include clips from this sort of material in the your Brookes Virtual courses for Brookes registered students if you follow these guidelines.
Each clip should be short and should be no longer than is necessary to illustrate the points you wish to make.
You must set the clip in a context that makes it clear how it relates to a point you want to illustrate or to a particular learning activity.
You should always include an acknowledgement of the source of the clip.
If you show film, video, DVDs or TV programmes in your lectures, you must not record your lecture and put it on the VLE. It may be possible to use lecture capture if you are only using short clips and if these clips clearly relate to points in
Embedding links to film, video and TV programmes
You may embed links in your VLE courses to videos from services like Box of Broadcasts or YouTube. If you want to embed a link to material in a site like YouTube, you should check first to make sure that the material has not not been uploaded
illegally. You should only link to material if you are confident that the person or organisation that uploaded the material is the rightsowner of the material.
Other uses of film and video
You may only show film, video, DVDs or TV programmes to Brookes students in connection with their course. You must not show this sort of material to Brookes students for recreational purposes (unless you have obtained a licence which allows this).
You must not show this sort of material to people who are not Brookes students (for example people attending a public lecture, prospective students, students' parents) unless you have obtained a licence which allows this.
Further information and help
If you want to record your lecture and put it on the VLE, you will need to consider the following issues.
Your lecture capture must exclude streamed content from sources like Box of Broadcasts, iPlayer, or YouTube. If you play DVDs, television programmes or music during your lecture, you must exclude these from the lecture capture. It should be
possible to use the lecture capture software/equipment to exclude copyright material (e.g. by pressing a pause button).
You should be careful about including in your lecture capture other copyright material such as images and web pages.
You may be able to include in your lecture capture limited extracts from copyright material if they are intended to illustrate a point in your teaching. Anything you include should be limited to what is necessary to illustrate the points you wish
to make. You should always include an acknowledgement of the source of any copyright material.
You should always inform students attending the lecture that it is being recorded. You should consider whether students attending the lecture will need to give consent to the recording.
Further guidelines on
are provided by JISC.
See also copyright guidelines on
Using images in teaching and coursework
Using film and video in teaching and coursework
Further information and helpE-mail
These guidelines are intended for teaching staff who wish to hand out to students photocopies of book chapters, journal articles and other copyright material published in print form.
The Copyright Licensing Agency Licence allows the photocopying of book chapters and journal articles under the conditions described here.
How much you may copy from one publication
The Copyright Licensing Agency limits the amount of a publication that may be copied for any one module:
Sources of material not covered by the CLA Licence
The CLA Licence does not cover all content. Please use the
CLA Title Search
to check whether the publication you wish to copy is covered by the Licence.
Types of material not covered by the CLA Licence
Copying limited to Oxford Brookes owned material
The CLA Licence only allows copying from a book or journal belonging to the Library or another department of Oxford Brookes. For example, the Licence does not allow:
Number of copies that may be made
The number of copies made of any one item should be limited to one copy each for students on the module and one copy for the lecturer.
Types of students and courses covered by the Licence
All credit-bearing undergraduate and postgraduate courses which are delivered by Oxford Brookes staff are covered by the Licence. Some short courses and some courses delivered outside Oxford Brookes premises may not be covered by the Licence.
These guidelines describe what the CLA Licence allows when you are photocopying from printed material onto paper. The
Library scanning service
will provide scans of book chapters and journal articles for you to make available on your Moodle course.
Providing photocopies from newspapers is covered by the Newspaper Agency Licence, not the CLA Licence.
A list of newspapers covered by the NLA Licence is given below:
Independent on Sunday
The Mail on Sunday
Providing printouts from webpages
There are separate
guidelines on providing printouts from e-journal articles or Library online resources.
You may not handout to students printouts from websites unless the website gives you clear permission to do this.
Small extracts, images and quotations
It may be possible to copy small amounts of a publication without regard to the CLA Licence. You may copy a small amount of a publication in order to illustrate a point in your teaching, or in order to criticise or make comments on that part of
These are guidelines for how much you may copy when you want to criticise or make comments on a part of a publication:
You should always include an acknowledgement of the publication from which the copy has been made.
There are a few collections of electronic journals which allow e-journal articles to be included in Moodle or to be printed out and given to students.
If you want to check whether an e-journal is available in one of these collections, look it up on the
A-to-Z of e-journals
service. If an e-journal article is available through one of the following suppliers, you may include it in Moodle, or print it out and give it to students.
Each item made available to students should carry appropriate acknowledgement of the source, listing title, author, publisher and copyright owner. If you want to check whether an e-journal is available in one of these collections, look it up on the
Most electronic journals are available on different terms and conditions. Unless they are available from the collections listed above, you should not make e-journal articles available to other people (for example, by including them on a Moodle
course or emailing them to another person). You may print or download one copy of an electronic journal article from one journal issue for non-commercial research or private study. If you wish to make an e-journal article available to students via
Moodle, you should link to it (either directly or by using an Aspire reading list).
You should not make e-book chapters available to other people (for example, by including them on Moodle or emailing them to another person). If you wish to make an e-book chapter available to students via Moodle, you should link to it (either
directly or by using an Aspire reading list).
Databases of reports, primary sources and other full text resources
The Library subscribes to some databases which allow their resources to be downloaded and included in Moodle or to be printed out and given to students. Each item included made available to students should carry appropriate acknowledgement of the
source, listing title, author, publisher and copyright owner.
These databases include:
The Library subscribes to some databases which provide images that you can download and include in Moodle:
- high quality art historical images useful for a wide range of subjects
- art historical images useful for a wide range of subjects
British cartoon archive
- cartoons from newspapers and other sources going back to the 19th century, particularly strong for politics and news coverage
You may print or download search results from databases for non-commercial research or private study. The Library subscribes to electronic databases under licence terms and conditions - you may check these on the database sites or ask for further
The guidelines on this page describe how Library online resources may be used according to the terms and conditions of the subscriptions for the resources.
All the guidelines below refer to copying for your own personal use, for non-commercial research or private study.
These guidelines do not apply to copying material to make it available to other people (for example, by including it in a PowerPoint presentation or on a web site).
There are separate
guidelines on copying for teaching
(the guidelines also apply to students who wish to use copyright material in coursework and in presentations).
You should note on each copy an acknowledgement of the publication which was copied.
You may copy either one chapter from a book or 5% of a book.
You may copy one article from one journal issue.
If a poem or short story is included in a collection of poems or stories, you may copy up to 10 pages of one short story or poem.
You may copy up to 10% of a British Standard. With other short publications (pamphlets, reports, other standards) which are up to 20 pages long, you may copy 2 pages.
Images (illustrations, photos, diagrams and other pictures) may be copied for your own personal use, for research or private study.
You may scan or photocopy an A4 extract from a sheet map.
You may copy a small excerpt from a musical work.
You may copy a small excerpt from a film or a DVD.
These guidelines are intended mainly for students who want to publish their work with Get Published! and in the Student Research collection in RADAR, and for staff supporting student publication. You will own the copyright in your own work – these guidelines will help you respect other people’s copyright as you plan your publication. More detailed guidance is available via the Moodle course Copyright and Publication; anyone at Brookes can enrol themselves on the course, which takes about an hour to complete.
Using other people’s copyright material
You are likely to want to use images in your work: photos, diagrams, maps, etc. If you want to include any material created by other people in your work, you will need to make sure that you have their permission to do this.
Images with permission for re-use and publication
You are recommended to find images from sites that are dedicated to providing images for free re-use and publication. Examples of these are Pixabay (a small number of the images require payment) and MorgueFile.
Checking whether images are available for re-use and publication
Checking whether permission for publication is authorised
You can use sites that allow you to search for images that have permission for re-use, such as the Creative Commons search engine. You will need to check the specific permission given with each image, as it will vary. This search includes websites like Flickr and Wikimedia Commons which contain lots of useful images which can be used in non-commercial publications (such as Get Published! research made available in RADAR). However, you should be aware that these and other websites contain images and other material which have been illegally copied; these websites may give misleading advice about how this material may be used. Do not use images from these sorts of sites unless the images were contributed by the person or organisation who created or owns the copyright in the material.
Captions, attribution and referencing
Captions for images you have copied should include citations for the sources (following, for example, library guidelines on referencing sources). If you are using material from a website that asks for a specific form of attribution, you will need to include this as well. Where you have used your own image (such as a photo you have taken or a diagram you have created), it is helpful to indicate on the caption that it is your own work.
Dan Croft, Scholarly Communications and Research Team Leader Telephone 01865 485085 or email email@example.com.