How to reference articles, web sites and media sources in MHRA

  • For more details of how to use the MHRA referencing style, check the page Referencing in MHRA. If you need help with referencing, you can contact the Academic Liaison Librarian for English and Drama

  • Footnote format: Firstname Lastname, ‘Article Title’, Journal Title, Volume.Issue (Year), x-xx (p. x).  

    For example:

    Britta Martens, ‘Dramatic Monologue, Detective Fiction, and the Search for Meaning’, Nineteenth-Century Literature, 66.2 (2011), 195-218 (p. 203). 
    OR, if cited as an e-journal: 
    Britta Martens, ‘Dramatic Monologue, Detective Fiction, and the Search for Meaning’, Nineteenth-Century Literature, 66.2 (2011), 195-218 (p. 203) <http://www.jstor.org.oxfordbrookes.idm.oclc.org/stable/10.1525/ncl.2011.66.2.195> [accessed 19 July 2017].

    Graham Saunders, ‘‘‘Out Vile Jelly’’: Sarah Kane's Blasted and Shakespeare's King Lear’, New Theatre Quarterly, 20.1 (2004), 69-78 (p. 71). 
    OR, if cited as an e-journal:
    Graham Saunders, ‘‘‘Out Vile Jelly’’: Sarah Kane's Blasted and Shakespeare's King Lear’, New Theatre Quarterly, 20.1 (2004), 69-78 (p. 71) <DOI: https://doi-org.oxfordbrookes.idm.oclc.org/10.1017/S0266464X03000344> [accessed 19 July 2017].

    Carole Jones, ‘Coming in from the Cold: Scottish Masculinity in Post-Millennial Fiction’, C21 Literature: Journal of 21st-Century Writings, 5.2 (2017) <https://c21.openlibhums.org/articles/10.16995/c21.21/> [accessed 19 July 2017] (para.3).


    Bibliography format: Lastname, Firstname, ‘Article Title’, Journal Title, Volume.Issue (Year), x-xx

    For example:

    Martens, Britta, ‘Dramatic Monologue, Detective Fiction, and the Search for Meaning’, Nineteenth-Century Literature, 66.2 (2011), 195-218
    OR, if cited as an e-journal: 
    Martens, Britta, ‘Dramatic Monologue, Detective Fiction, and the Search for Meaning’, Nineteenth-Century Literature, 66.2 (2011), 195-218 <http://www.jstor.org.oxfordbrookes.idm.oclc.org/stable/10.1525/ncl.2011.66.2.195> [accessed 19 July 2017]

    Saunders, Graham, ‘‘‘Out Vile Jelly’’: Sarah Kane's Blasted and Shakespeare's King Lear’, New Theatre Quarterly, 20.1 (2004), 69-78
    OR, if cited as an e-journal: 
    Saunders, Graham, ‘‘‘Out Vile Jelly’’: Sarah Kane's Blasted and Shakespeare's King Lear’, New Theatre Quarterly, 20.1 (2004), 69-78 <DOI: https://doi-org.oxfordbrookes.idm.oclc.org/10.1017/S0266464X03000344> [accessed 19 July 2017]  

    Jones, Carole, ‘Coming in from the Cold: Scottish Masculinity in Post-Millennial Fiction’, C21 Literature: Journal of 21st-Century Writings, 5.2 (2017) <https://c21.openlibhums.org/articles/10.16995/c21.21/> [accessed 19 July 2017]


    Key things to remember when referencing journal articles:

    • PDF articles from e-journals can be referenced in the same way as articles from print journals. You may choose to include online details at the end of the reference but this is optional. If you do, add the URL or DOI of the resource details in angle brackets <URL> and the date accessed in square brackets [accessed day month year]. NB If the article is only available as a Web page, you must include the URL and date accessed. 
    • The bibliography needs to be arranged alphabetically by author surname, so always reverse the name of the article author in the bibliography reference.
    • Put article title in single quotation marks and journal title in italics. The titles of works of literature occurring within article titles should be italicized or placed within double quotation marks, to differentiate. Quotations from literary works which occur as part of the article title should also be enclosed in double quotation marks, as in the example of Saunders above.
    • Include page range of journal article but just use the numbers - don’t use pp. Specify page cited in footnote references. Where an online journal does not have page numbers, you need to include the location of passage cited (in round brackets). 

    Footnote format: Firstname Lastname, ‘Article Title’, Newspaper Title, day month year, p. x 

    For example:

    Jackie Kay, ‘Poetry…a Beautiful Renaissance’, Guardian, 29 January 2011, p. 30.

    Stuart Jeffries, ‘Literature: Ventriloquist to the dead’, Guardian, 9 November 2012, p.34 <www.lexisnexis.com> [accessed 10 October 2014].


    Bibliography format: Lastname, Firstname, ‘Article Title’, Newspaper Title, day month year, p. x

    For example:

    Kay, Jackie, ‘Poetry…a Beautiful Renaissance’, Guardian, 29 January 2011, p. 30

    Jeffries, Stuart, ‘Literature: Ventriloquist to the dead’, Guardian, 9 November 2012 <www.lexisnexis.com> [accessed 10 October 2014]


    Key things to remember when referencing newspaper articles:

    • If no individual author is credited, start the reference with the title of the article.
    • Put the article title in single quotation marks and newspaper title in italics. The titles of works of literature occurring within article titles should be italicized or placed within double quotation marks, to differentiate.
    • If you have accessed the article via a newspaper database, include online details at the end of the reference: add the URL or DOI of the resource details in angle brackets <URL> and the date accessed in square brackets [accessed day month year]. 

    Footnote format: Firstname Lastname, ‘Title of Web page’, Title of Resource (Year) <URL> [accessed day month year].

    For example:

    Gary Harrison, ‘Romanticism, Nature, Ecology’, Romantic Circles, (2006) < http://www.rc.umd.edu/pedagogies/commons/ecology/harrison/harrison.html> [accessed 12 July 2017].


    Bibliography format: Lastname, Firstname, ‘Title of Web page’, Title of Resource (Year) <URL> [accessed day month year]

    For example:

    Harrison, Gary, ‘Romanticism, Nature, Ecology’, Romantic Circles, (2006) < http://www.rc.umd.edu/pedagogies/commons/ecology/harrison/harrison.html> [accessed 12 July 2017] 


    Key things to remember when referencing web pages:

    • If no individual author is credited, you can use the name of the organisation responsible for the web page e.g. The Poetry Book Society. 
    • If the web page is part of a larger resource or site, put the title of the page in single quotation marks and the title of the site in italics. 
    • For the date, give the year the page was last updated if available If this information is not available, use ‘[n.d.]’ (= no date).

    Key things to remember when referencing DVDs:

    The format remains the same for footnote and bibliography references, except for the omission of the full stop at  the end of the bibliography reference: Film Title, dir. by Firstname Lastname (Distributor, Year) [on DVD].

    For example:

    Footnote format: Pride and Prejudice, dir. by Joe Wright (Universal Pictures, 2006) [on DVD].

    Bibliography format: Pride and Prejudice, dir. by Joe Wright (Universal Pictures, 2006) [on DVD]

    Key things to remember when referencing programmes on BoB:

    The format remains the same for footnote and bibliography references, except for the omission of the full stop at  the end of the bibliography reference: ‘Episode Title’, Programme/Series Title, Channel Name, day month year, time of broadcast.

    For example:

    Footnote format: 'Snacking through Shakespeare', Shakespeare's Restless World, BBC Radio 4, 18 April 2012, 13.45.

    Bibliography format: 'Snacking through Shakespeare', Shakespeare's Restless World, BBC Radio 4, 18 April 2012, 13.45