How to reference a media source

  • For further guidance, check the MHRA Style Guide on referencing Recordings, Films, Digital Media, and Software; Broadcasts; Works of Art

    Referencing a film on DVD

    Note that the format remains the same for footnote and bibliography references, except for the omission of the full stop at the end of the bibliography reference:

    Film Title, dir. by Firstname Lastname (Distributor, Year) [on DVD].

    For example:

    Footnote format: Pride and Prejudice, dir. by Joe Wright (Universal Pictures, 2006) [on DVD].

    Bibliography format: Pride and Prejudice, dir. by Joe Wright (Universal Pictures, 2006) [on DVD]

    Referencing a film, TV or radio programme viewed on BoB (Box of Broadcasts)

    Note that the format remains the same for footnote and bibliography references, except for the omission of the full stop at the end of the bibliography reference:

    ‘Episode Title’, Programme/Series Title, Channel Name, day month year, time of broadcast.

    For example:

    Footnote format: 'Snacking through Shakespeare', Shakespeare's Restless World, BBC Radio 4, 18 April 2012, 13.45.

    Bibliography format: 'Snacking through Shakespeare', Shakespeare's Restless World, BBC Radio 4, 18 April 2012, 13.45

    Referencing a video viewed on YouTube

    Name of person/organisation posting video, Video Title, online video recording, YouTube, date of posting, <URL> [accessed date].

    For the bibliography format, reverse the author name and omit the full stop.

    For example:

    Footnote format: Waterstones, Hilary Mantel: The Waterstones Interview - Wolf Hall Trilogy, online video recording, YouTube, 24 February 2020, <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LsZrYQ2Ud_c> [accessed 13 March 2020].

    Referencing a podcast

    Name of person/organisation posting,'Title of episode', Title of Series, podcast, date of posting, <URL. [accessed date}. 

    Footnote format: Marit Higraff and Neil McCarthy, 'The Isdal Woman', Death in Ice Valley, podcast, 16 April 2018, < https://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p0646dbd> [accessed 12 March 2020].

    Bibliography format: Higraff, Marit and Neil McCarthy, 'The Isdal Woman', Death in Ice Valley, podcast, 16 April 2018, < https://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p0646dbd> [accessed 12 March 2020]

    Referencing a lecture

    Author/speaker; Date; Title of lecture, medium (ie lecture); Location/institution (Date)

    For example:

    Footnote format: Katherine Rundell, Daemon Voices, lecture, Sheldonian Theatre, Oxford, UK (22 February 2018).
    Bibliography format: Rundell, Katherine, Daemon Voices, lecture, Sheldonian Theatre, Oxford, UK (22 February 2018)

    Referencing a work of art

    References to works of art should include at least the name of the artist (if known), the title of the work in italics, its date (if known), and the medium of composition. You may also include the dimensions (in cm), its current physical location or details of the online source you have consulted.

    The bibliography needs to be arranged alphabetically by surname, so always reverse the name of the artist in the bibliography reference.

    Firstname Lastname of artist, Title of Art Work, Year, medium of composition, Current physical location

    For example:

    Footnote format: James Northcote, Othello, The Moor of Venice, 1826, oil on canvas, Manchester Art Gallery, UK.

    Bibliography format: Northcote, James, Othello, The Moor of Venice, 1826, oil on canvas, Manchester Art Gallery, UK 

    If you've consulted an online source:

    Firstname Lastname of artist, Title of Art Work, Year, medium of composition, Current physical location <URL> [accessed day month year].

    For example:

    Footnote format: Joseph Wright of Derby, An Experiment on a Bird in the Air Pump, 1768, oil on canvas, National Gallery, London, UK <https://library-artstor-org.oxfordbrookes.idm.oclc.org/asset/ANGLIG_10313767843> [accessed 7 November 2018].

    Bibliography format: Wright of Derby, Joseph, An Experiment on a Bird in the Air Pump, 1768, oil on canvas, National Gallery, London, UK <https://library-artstor-org.oxfordbrookes.idm.oclc.org/asset/ANGLIG_10313767843> [accessed 7 November 2018]