How to reference an article

  • Key things to remember when referencing articles from journals and newspapers

    • PDF articles from e-journals can be referenced in the same way as articles from print journals. You may choose to include online details at the end of the reference but this is optional. If you do, add the URL or DOI of the resource details in angle brackets <URL> and the date accessed in square brackets [accessed day month year]. NB If the article is only available as a Web page, you must include the URL and date accessed. 
    • If you have accessed a newspaper article via a database, include online details at the end of the reference: add the URL or DOI of the resource details in angle brackets <URL> and the date accessed in square brackets [accessed day month year]. 
    • The bibliography needs to be arranged alphabetically by author surname, so always reverse the name of the article author in the bibliography reference.
    • Put article title in single quotation marks and journal or newspaper title in italics. The titles of works of literature occurring within article titles should be italicized or placed within double quotation marks, to differentiate. Quotations from literary works which occur as part of the article title should also be enclosed in double quotation marks, as in the example of Saunders below.
    • Include page range of journal article but just use the numbers - don’t use pp. Specify page cited in footnote references. Where an online journal does not have page numbers, you need to include the location of passage cited (in round brackets). 

    For further tips see the MHRA Style Guide on how to reference journal articles (11.2.4) and newspaper articles (11.2.5)

    Referencing a print or online journal article

    Footnote format: Firstname Lastname, ‘Article Title’, Journal Title, Volume.Issue (Year), x-xx (p. x).  

    For example:

    Britta Martens, ‘Dramatic Monologue, Detective Fiction, and the Search for Meaning’, Nineteenth-Century Literature, 66.2 (2011), 195-218 (p. 203). 
    OR, if cited as an e-journal: 
    Britta Martens, ‘Dramatic Monologue, Detective Fiction, and the Search for Meaning’, Nineteenth-Century Literature, 66.2 (2011), 195-218 (p. 203) <http://www.jstor.org.oxfordbrookes.idm.oclc.org/stable/10.1525/ncl.2011.66.2.195> [accessed 19 July 2017].

    Graham Saunders, ‘‘‘Out Vile Jelly’’: Sarah Kane's Blasted and Shakespeare's King Lear’, New Theatre Quarterly, 20.1 (2004), 69-78 (p. 71). 
    OR, if cited as an e-journal:
    Graham Saunders, ‘‘‘Out Vile Jelly’’: Sarah Kane's Blasted and Shakespeare's King Lear’, New Theatre Quarterly, 20.1 (2004), 69-78 (p. 71) <DOI: https://doi-org.oxfordbrookes.idm.oclc.org/10.1017/S0266464X03000344> [accessed 19 July 2017].

    Carole Jones, ‘Coming in from the Cold: Scottish Masculinity in Post-Millennial Fiction’, C21 Literature: Journal of 21st-Century Writings, 5.2 (2017) <https://c21.openlibhums.org/articles/10.16995/c21.21/> [accessed 19 July 2017] (para.3).


    Bibliography format: Lastname, Firstname, ‘Article Title’, Journal Title, Volume.Issue (Year), x-xx

    For example:

    Martens, Britta, ‘Dramatic Monologue, Detective Fiction, and the Search for Meaning’, Nineteenth-Century Literature, 66.2 (2011), 195-218
    OR, if cited as an e-journal: 
    Martens, Britta, ‘Dramatic Monologue, Detective Fiction, and the Search for Meaning’, Nineteenth-Century Literature, 66.2 (2011), 195-218 <http://www.jstor.org.oxfordbrookes.idm.oclc.org/stable/10.1525/ncl.2011.66.2.195> [accessed 19 July 2017]

    Saunders, Graham, ‘‘‘Out Vile Jelly’’: Sarah Kane's Blasted and Shakespeare's King Lear’, New Theatre Quarterly, 20.1 (2004), 69-78
    OR, if cited as an e-journal: 
    Saunders, Graham, ‘‘‘Out Vile Jelly’’: Sarah Kane's Blasted and Shakespeare's King Lear’, New Theatre Quarterly, 20.1 (2004), 69-78 <DOI: https://doi-org.oxfordbrookes.idm.oclc.org/10.1017/S0266464X03000344> [accessed 19 July 2017]  

    Jones, Carole, ‘Coming in from the Cold: Scottish Masculinity in Post-Millennial Fiction’, C21 Literature: Journal of 21st-Century Writings, 5.2 (2017) <https://c21.openlibhums.org/articles/10.16995/c21.21/> [accessed 19 July 2017]

    Referencing an article from a print or online newspaper

    Note that with some newspaper articles, no individual author is credited. Start the reference with the title of the article. In the bibliography, list the source by article title, ignoring initial definite or indefinite articles.

    Footnote format: Firstname Lastname, ‘Article Title’, Newspaper Title, day month year, p. x 

    For example:

    Jackie Kay, ‘Poetry…a Beautiful Renaissance’, Guardian, 29 January 2011, p. 30.

    Stuart Jeffries, ‘Literature: Ventriloquist to the dead’, Guardian, 9 November 2012, p.34 <www.lexisnexis.com> [accessed 10 October 2014].


    Bibliography format: Lastname, Firstname, ‘Article Title’, Newspaper Title, day month year, p. x

    For example:

    Kay, Jackie, ‘Poetry…a Beautiful Renaissance’, Guardian, 29 January 2011, p. 30

    Jeffries, Stuart, ‘Literature: Ventriloquist to the dead’, Guardian, 9 November 2012 <www.lexisnexis.com> [accessed 10 October 2014]