• ship 4


      Eliminate illegal fishing and piracy as a source of conflict


    There are four specific research cycles involved in the project of 16 months in total:

    Stage one

    Preparation, inception and first analysis with complete research team:

    Participatory visual focus group with selected coastal community members and with selected governmental law enforcement agencies.
    Milestone: identification of the main research direction on the basis of the collages and first articulation of contextual dimensions of the maritime dimension of transnational organised crime by research participants.
    Fishing Law Inforcement Officer

    Stage two

    The Maritime Dimension of Transnational Organised Crime:

    Engaging Indonesian Law Enforcement Agencies and Coastal Communities in the Land-Sea Nexus

    Stage 2

    In December 2017 we were in Indonesia for the second stage of our ESRC/AHRC funded PaCCS (Partnership for Conflict, Crime and Security) research project on “The Maritime Dimension of Transnational Organised Crime”. After our initial round of creative inception workshops earlier in 2017 with fishing community leaders from different Indonesian islands and with law enforcement organizations in Jakarta (sea police, ministry of marine affairs and fisheries, migration office etc.) to provide direction for the research, this second stage saw the researchers (Juliette Koning, Oxford Brookes Business School; Math Noortmann, Coventry University; researchers from Universitas Indonesia’s faculty of Law and from the International Organization for Migration Indonesia) travel to the various locations in Indonesia to discuss in more detail the main issues from phase one.

    Stage 2

    During inception workshops three issues emerged that were taken forward in this second phase:

    1. The local dimension of transnational organised crime [illegal fishing, smuggling of drugs, and trafficking of people]
    2. Cooperation (or lack of it) between the fishing communities and law enforcement agencies [information sharing]
    3. Education, awareness, understanding, expectations [legal, fishing, technical, and operational]

    The second fieldwork phase included creative collage-making in each of the fishing communities and follow-up interviews with each of the law enforcement agencies so as to create space for them to be more outspoken about their own role and that of other law enforcers.

    Stage 2

    The researchers also did ad hoc conversations in each of the fishing communities and nearby harbours.

    Stage 2

    The research outcomes (still to be closely analysed) hint at:

    1. Transnational labour exploitation and human trafficking activities (for economic reasons)
    2. Difficult communication, dialogue and cooperation between fishing communities and law enforcement organisations (trust, information sharing, support)
    3. Blurring lines between unlawful and criminal activities (IUU fishing, or illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing)
    4. Willingness to address illegal activities but lack of resources and coordination among law enforcement organisations
    5. The research uses what we refer to as collage-making which worked out quite well in most cases offering alternative ways to discuss some of the more sensitive issues at stake. ‘Collage’ is a popular art form which was cultivated by Pablo Picasso and George Braque in the early 20th century. As a visual research methodology however, collage–making is still under-used in the social sciences and humanities. We use it in our project as a creative tool for exploring primary knowledge, opinions and ideas, which would otherwise be tainted by the politics of dialogue and discussion, and the practices of the ‘speech act’. We argue that collage-making offers an egalitarian way of knowledge production. We do so based on the critical understanding that research and research outcomes need to be more inclusive of our research participants’ viewpoints, questions, and voice. We have specifically used the collage-making technique in order to level the playing field in Focus Group discussions and to get participants out of their comfort zone of traditional conversation.

      Stage 2

      We provided the focus group participants with the means to make a collage. Scissors, glue, magazines, sticky notes and different markers offered the possibility of creative visual expression.

      The creative outcomes were the products of both preconceived ideas as well as new, innovative understandings which were triggered by the images that the participants saw while flipping through the magazines. The images that were chosen to become part of the collage were integrated in different manners reflecting the multiple ways of picturing maritime crimes and security.

      We then invited the individual participants to explain their collages, which resulted in different verbal expressions. In the ensuing discussions, questions were asked on the basis of the collages rather than the verbal explanations. While the explanations provide us with the traditional tool of transcribed language, the collages provide us with a new and innovative visual method to analyse and interpret the opinions and the ‘voices’ of a range of participating stakeholders.

    Stage 2
  • Interdisciplinary data analysis and reporting by complete research team

    The various data sets (visual, text) will be interpreted using contextual analysis. 
    Milestones: draft policy report, newspaper article, and short pieces for practitioner outlets as well as the draft poster(s) to be discussed in next stage.

    Preparation participatory workshop and final reporting by complete team 

    Workshop with coastal community members and governmental law enforcement agencies to discuss findings and articulate recommendations. 
    Milestones: final poster(s) to be used for educational and informative purposes and raising awareness of the maritime dimension of transnational organised crime. Drafting of academic and policy papers.