Bokor C, Rohani B, Humphries C, Morrey D, Bonatesta F, 'Investigating the Impact of Gasoline Composition on PN in GDI Engines Using an Improved Measurement Method' International Journal of Engine Research x (2020)
An experimental investigation was carried out to investigate Particulate Number (PN) emissions from a modern, small-capacity Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engine. The first part of the study focused on improving measurement repeatability using the Cambustion DMS-500 device. Results showed that sampling near the exhaust valve – while dampening the pressure oscillations in the sampling line – can significantly improve the repeatability. It was also found that uncontrolled phenomena such as deposition in the exhaust system from earlier engine operation can undermine the accuracy of measurements taken at tailpipe level. The second part of the work investigated PN emissions from three types of gasoline fuel, Pump-grade, Performance and Reference. Fuel chemical composition was found to have an appreciable impact on PN, but the magnitude of this effect differs in various operating points, being more pronounced at higher engine load. The Reference fuel was found to have the lowest PN emission tendency, conceivably because of its lower aromatics, olefins and heavy hydrocarbons content. A sweep of operating parameters showed that higher injection pressure reduces PN, but the extent of the reduction depends on fuel physical properties such as volatility.