Intercultural Communication

Byram, M., Lengel, L. and Talkington, B. (2004) ‘Setting the context, highlighting the importance: reflections on interculturality and pedagogy’, Report from the IALIC/Subject Centre Pedagogical Forum on "Intercultural Lessons: Locating the intercultural in an educational context".
This report highlights the importance of interculturality in pedagogy. It addresses how teachers are developing curricula and unpacking learning moments which challenge students to reflect critically on their own lived experience. The classroom should be the place where both cognitive and affective challenge materializes, and where both teachers and learners can take the opportunity to reflect on one's response. The Forum, too, was a space for reflection and challenge, and a valued opportunity for the exploration of interculturality and pedagogy.

Dunne, C. (2009). Host Students' Perspectives of Intercultural Contact in an Irish University. Journal of Studies in International Education, 13(2); 222-239.

A grounded theory study was conducted in an Irish university exploring host (Irish) students’ perspectives on intercultural contact. The study focused on students’ construction of cultural difference within the educational environment, the factors influencing intercultural contact, and students’ experiences of such contact. The findings suggest that although nationality and age are used to differentiate students, the concept of “maturity”—underpinned by values and behaviors relating to academic motivations, responsibilities, and authority—is central to students’ construction of cultural difference on campus. Diverse factors identified as impacting upon students’ intercultural acquaintance prospects and relational development are presented and discussed and suggestions proferred for conditions to foster intercultural contact.

Dunn, L. and Wallace, M. (2004) ‘Australian academics teaching in Singapore: striving for cultural empathy’, Innovations in Education and Teaching International, Vol. 41, No. 3, pp. 291-304. This paper discusses one international degree program and the way it is experienced by its Singaporean students and Australian academics as each group strives to understand the academic and cultural needs of the other. Singaporean students in the study reported a range of different learning styles and most preferred teaching and learning approaches that encourage deep learning. The Australian academics considered that these characteristics were similar to those of Australian students, but it appears that the way Australian academics facilitate student-centeredness is confronting to Singaporeans used to different teaching, learning and assessment methods. Some Singaporean students accorded local tutors less 'expert' status than the Australian lecturers, thus they placed low value on the tutorial assistance provided as a key part of mixed-mode delivery of the course. Also, the Australian academics reported that they had difficulty finding culturally appropriate ways to ask for, and receive, critical evaluative feedback from the Singaporean students and tutors.

Dunstan, P. (2003) ‘Cultural diversity for life: a case study from Australia’, Journal of Studies in International Education Vol. 7, No. 1 pp. 64-76. This article considers internationalisation policy and practice in Australian institutions, with a focus on the internationalisation of student experiences. The discussion recognises the political and historical context of international education in Australia and discusses the opportunities Australian institutions have to develop practical models of cultural awareness and to work with diversity in student groups. The article uses examples of policy and practical initiatives in universities, as well as discussion of a specific secondary school in Melbourne, Australia, currently using organisational structure, curriculum and innovative practice to internationalise its learning community.

Goh, M. (2012). Teaching with cultural intelligence: developing multiculturally educated and globally engaged citizens. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 32(4), 395-415.
While the character and citizenship education literature in Asia and the Pacific often mentions intercultural understanding and global-mindedness as desirable outcomes, few models exist that translate effortlessly into citizenship curriculum or classroom pedagogy. Cultural intelligence, a theory-based and empirically rigorous construct propounds an ideal framework for promoting intercultural competence in character and citizenship education. To that end, teachers are faced with both the chance and challenge to lead and teach with cultural intelligence. In this paper, the inexorable requirement for intercultural competence in character and citizenship education is contended. The fit between the theory and practice of cultural intelligence and citizenship education is explored and examples offered for how teachers can teach with cultural intelligence and develop culturally intelligent students who will become multiculturally educated and globally engaged citizens.

MacKinnon, D., & Manathunga, C. (2003) ‘Going global with assessment: what to do when the dominant culture's literacy drives assessment’, Higher Education Research and Development, Vol. 22This article explores how the dominant cultural literacy in a western context relies on a western template of knowledge that can inhibit internationalisation of the curricula unless it is identified, transformed, and broadened to become interculturally responsive., No. 2, pp.132-144.

Ippolito, K. (2007). “Promoting intercultural learning in a multicultural university: ideals and realities”. Teaching in Higher Education 12 (5&6) pp. 749-763.

This article seeks to explore how students and teachers operate in an international learning environment as it evaluates a module designed to facilitate intercultural learning.

Leask, B. (2003) ‘Beyond the numbers - levels and layers of internationalization to utilise and support growth and diversity’,Paper presented at the 17th IDP Australian International Education Conference, Melbourne, Australia October 2003.
This conference paper moves beyond the usual discourse about internationalisation in higher education, which frequently relates to student numbers and associated income. A broader view of internationalisation is expounded which includes socio-cultural understandings

Mc Allister, L. et al. (2006) ‘Reflection in intercultural learning: examining the international experience through a critical incident approach’, Reflective Practice, Vol. 7, No. 3, pp. 367-381
The purpose of the study was to illuminate key processes in the development of cultural knowledge and intercultural competence through exploring the experiences of education and health professional students undertaking fieldwork and study in Indonesia and Vietnam.

Neriko Musha Doerr, N.M. (2013). Do ‘global citizens’ need the parochial cultural other? Discourse of immersion in study abroad and learning-by-doing. Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education,43(2), 224-243.

The discourse of immersion is prevalent but little analysed in the field of study abroad. Linked generally to learning-by-doing, this discourse has significance for ‘intercultural education’. Based on text analyses of three guidebooks on study abroad, this article suggests four effects of the discourse of immersion: It justifies study abroad as different from, if not better than, classroom learning and tourism. It emphasises the difference between students’ home and host cultures and constructs each society as internally homogeneous. It constructs study-abroad students’ home societies as globalised and their host societies as immobile and parochial, creating a hierarchy when globalisation is valorized. Finally, it exoticises the learning-by-doing ‘teachers’ – the host people – by portraying them as parochial ‘cultural others’. This article suggests an uneven process where the call for production of ‘global citizens’ through study abroad constructs host societies as parochial and risks reproducing a colonialist hierarchy of exoticism through intercultural learning-by-doing.

Otten, M. (2003) ‘Intercultural learning and diversity in higher education’, Journal of Studies in International Education, Vol. 7, No. 1, pp. 12-26.
This article presents the theoretical and conceptual framework of an understanding of intercultural learning. Drawn from regions with an explicit diversity policy tradition in higher education—namely, the United States, Canada, and Australia—ways and problems of its adaptation to the European context will be discussed. The article provides an orientation for setting up diversity activities and diversity plans aimed at intercultural learning.

Paige, M.R. (ed.) (1993) Education for the Intercultural Experience. Yarmouth: Intercultural Press.

Sayers, J. and Franklin, T. (2008) ‘Culture shock! Cultural issues in a tertiary course using reflective techniques’, Reflective Practice, Vol. 9, No. 1, pp. 79-88.
This paper discusses the rapid increase in numbers of international students (mainly by Chinese students) of a business degree and its impact on one course in that degree programme. The purpose of the course is to develop reflective capabilities in students and the paper considers how staff involved in the course reflected on their own practice and made changes to the course to accommodate the new contingent of students from outside the host country. Initial perceptions by staff of the Chinese-originating students are described, as are tensions that emerged regarding the philosophical/cultural assumptions under-pinning the course. The paper shows how staff reconsidered their teaching practices and assessment tools and reports on an empirical study conducted to explore how students experienced the course’s teaching methods and assessment. The course’s reflective philosophy was adjusted to accommodate the new student cohort.

Trahar, S. (2010). Developing cultural capability in higher education. International approaches and solutions for teaching, learning and research. London: Routledge.
This book presents reflexive accounts by practitioners grappling with layers of cultural complexity and outlines practical, creative solutions.

Volet, S.E.and Ang, G. (2012). Culturally mixed groups on international campuses: an opportunity for inter-cultural learning. Higher Education Research & Development, 31(1), 21-37. (A re-issue from HERD, 1998, 17(1), 5-23.)

One of the major educational goals of the internationalisation of higher education is to prepare students to function in an international and inter-cultural context. Cultural diversity on university campuses creates ideal social forums for inter-cultural learning, yet, one of the most disturbing aspects of the internationalisation of higher education in Australia is the lack of interactions between local and international students from Asian backgrounds. This article examines the factors which students believe are affecting the formation of mixed groups for the completion of academic tasks. It also explores the nature of change in students' perceptions after a successful experience of mixed group work. The focus on both local and international students' appraisals of the situation highlights the two-way, interactive nature of group formation and shows how both parties share some responsibility in the lack of cultural mix.

Volet, S. (1999) Learning across cultures: appropriateness of knowledge transfer.International Journal of Educational Research, Vol. 31, pp. 625-643.

Volet critiques the social-cultural appropriateness of educational practices in multi-cultural settings. Volet argues for a new environment where students develop strategies to ‘read’ culturally and educationally different learning situations.

Volet, S. E. and Ang, G. (1998) ‘Culturally mixed groups on international campuses: an opportunity for inter-cultural learning’, Higher Education Research & Development, Vol.17, No. 1, pp. 5-23.
This article examines the factors which students believe are affecting the formation of mixed groups for the completion of academic tasks. It also explores the nature of change in students' perceptions after a successful experience of mixed group work. The focus on both local and international students' appraisals of the situation highlights the two-way, interactive nature of group formation and shows how both parties share some responsibility in the lack of cultural mix.

Wallace, M., & Hellmundt, S. (2003). ‘Strategies for collaboration and internationalisation in the classroom’, Nurse Education in Practice, Vol. 3, pp. 89-94.
Local and international students are given the opportunity to collaborate with the lecturer and one another in selecting teaching and learning strategies that (1) promoted student-centred learning and (2) enhanced student interaction.