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MSc PhD RNutr
Department of Sport, Health Sciences and Social Work
Faculty of Health and Life Sciences
I teach various modules at undergraduate and postgraduate level in Nutrition. I am also the subject co-ordinator for BSc Nutrition.
Module leader for:
Currenly supervising 2 students as Director of Studies and 3 students as second supervisor.
Daily consumption of millet-based foods is associated with a reduced risk of type-2 diabetes. The aim of the present study was to systematically review the literature describing intervention studies that have investigated the effects of consuming different types and forms of millet on the risk factors for type-2 diabetes. A literature search was conducted, using five databases, from May 2016 to January 2017, which identified 57 articles. Search terms included ‘millet’ AND healthy, pre-diabetic or type-2 diabetes AND fasting blood glucose or glycaemic or glycemic response or insulin response or glucose tolerance or insulin sensitivity. Nineteenstudies met the inclusion criteria. Although glycemic and insulin responses differ depending on the millet type and cooking method used, overall, millet has a beneficial effect on fasting and postprandial blood glucose and the plasma-insulin response in healthy individuals and those with type-2 diabetes. It can be concluded that millets do have the potential to play a protective role in the management of type-2 diabetes.
In a randomized, repeated-measures design, the glycaemic response and satiety ratings of a potato and leek soup were compared with and without the addition of 5 g of yellow mustard bran. Ten healthy, non-smoking, moderately active male subjects (mean age of 21.1 years and mean body mass index 23.2 kg/m(2)) were recruited to the study. Capillary blood glucose and satiety were measured at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min, postprandial of each food. The incremental area under the blood glucose curve, blood glucose at each time point and satiety rating were calculated and compared via paired t-test. Mean blood glucose values at 15, 30 and 90 min (p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001 and p = 0.0059, respectively) were all significantly lower with the addition of 5 g of yellow mustard bran. In conclusion, this study demonstrated the attenuation of postprandial glycaemic response following the addition of 5 g of yellow mustard bran to a soup.
Barley β-glucan (BG) has been shown to reduce glycaemic response (GR) in some studies. It is hypothesised that this reduction may be a function of its physical properties that delay gastric emptying (GE). The effect of these changes in GR and GE on diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) is not known. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of BG of different molecular weights and purities on GR, GE and DIT in healthy subjects. This was a randomised, single-blind, repeated-measures design where fifteen healthy subjects were tested on three occasions following an overnight fast. Following the baseline measurements, the volunteers were fed a soup containing high-molecular-weight BG (HBG), a soup containing low-molecular-weight BG (LBG) or a control soup with no BG (CHO). Following the consumption of the breakfast, GR was measured using finger-prick blood samples, GE was determined using the C-octanoic acid breath test and DIT was measured using indirect calorimetry. There was a difference in GR AUC between the soups after 60 min but not after 120 min. The CHO and LBG meals had a greater GR than the HBG meal. There were differences in all GE time points, with the HBG meal having the slowest GE time. There was a correlation between the GR and the initial GE times. There were differences in total DIT between the three test meals with the HBG meal having the lowest DIT. The present study indicates that HBG has the ability to delay GE due to increased viscosity, resulting in a decreased GR and DIT. © The Authors 2013.
The interest in barley as a food is increasing worldwide because of its high dietary fibre (DF) content and low glycaemic index (GI). DF in cereals may prove beneficial in improving blood glucose response in the long term. However, a dose-dependent effect of insoluble fibre on reducing postprandial blood glucose levels is yet to be proven. The objective of the present study was to determine the glycaemic response to two barley porridges prepared from whole barley grains varying in fibre content. In two separate non-blind randomised crossover trials, ten human subjects consumed barley porridge with 16 g/100 g and 10 g/100 g fibre content provided in different serving sizes (equivalent to 25 and 50 g available carbohydrate). The glycaemic response to both barley porridges was significantly lower than the reference glucose (P<0.05). There was no significant difference between the glucose areas under the curve or GI for the two barley porridges. We concluded that irrespective of the difference in total fibre content or serving size of barley porridges, their GI values did not differ significantly.
Oats are a rich source of b-glucans and bioactive phytochemicals. The established health-beneficial properties of oats have led to an increase in the consumption of oats and oat-based food products in recent years. The objective of the present study was to analyse and compare the polyphenol content and total antioxidant capacity (via FRAP (ferric ion reducing antioxidant power) and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl) inhibition) of 30 commercially available oat-based breakfast cereals. All of the breakfast cereals analysed were a significant source of polyphenols (1506-1853 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g) and antioxidants (1682-3542 mmol/l FRAP; 30-201% inhibition of DPPH compared to gallic acid standard). There was little difference between premium and budget brand varieties of the breakfast cereals. The polyphenol levels in an average serving (40 g) of an oat-based breakfast cereal are comparable to those found in fruits and vegetables. Overall, our findings suggest that consumption of oat-based breakfast cereals could be a significant contributor to the total polyphenol content and antioxidant potential of the diet.
The Health Survey for England 2016 shows that the prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing with 27% of adults being obese and 40% of men and 30% of women were overweight. As half of the UK population is expected to be obese by 2050, reformulation of food products can play a significant role in production of healthier foods with low energy density that can increase satiety and reduce food intake. Fat is the most energy-dense nutrient; hence it is a key area of reformulation for weight loss. The focus for reformulation in terms of fat is often on reducing saturated fat, but for weight loss overall fat reduction is the most important. This can be achieved through fat replacement products or altering the type of fats added to products to make them more satiating. Food reformulation in carbohydrate foods mainly involves reducing sugar and increasing fibre content. Considering that the current UK population has a high intake of sugars and low intake of fibre, reformulation strategies using bulk and intense sweeteners (ISs) as well as various dietary fibre ingredients are a viable way to have a positive influence on public health. The current chapter focuses on how carbohydrate and fat in food products can be reformulated to promote satiety and weight loss.
Glycaemic index (GI) is the concept developed in the 1980s as a physiological basis for carbohydrate classification, recognising that carbohydrate-containing foods with the same amount of available carbohydrate produce different glycaemic responses. The glycaemic load (GL) of a typical serving of food is essentially the product of the glycaemic index of the food and the quantity of available carbohydrate in that serving, and can be considered a more practical method of assessing the impact of carbohydrate on glycaemia. GI and GL play a role in determining food choices to manage the postprandial hyperglycaemia which is a characteristic feature of diabetes, and GI and GL are important. Randomised, controlled trials and intervention studies in children and adults with diabetes have reported benefits in terms of glycaemic control and cardiovascular risk.