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School of Engineering, Computing and Mathematics
Faculty of Technology, Design and Environment
Phone number: +44 (0)1865 483510
Location: Wheatley R 2.18
Teaching Engineering undergraduate and postgraduate courses.
Study the impact of cyclic variability of the in-cylinder flow on the engine soot formation
2017-18 : Led second year 'Thermo-fluids' module
2018-19 : Currently leading first year 'Engineering Design and Pratice' module
Hybrid and pure Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) of aero-engine exhausts for noise prediction
LES of GDI engines: Computation of in-cylinder flows to understand cycle-by-cycle variation of the flow and soot formation during engine operation cycle
Jets at higher Reynolds numbers have a high concentration of energy in small scales in the nozzle vicinity. This is challenging for large-eddy simulation, potentially placing severe demands on grid density. To circumvent this, we propose a novel procedure based on well-known Reynolds number (Re) independent of jets. We reduce the jet Re while rescaling the boundary layer properties to maintain incoming boundary layer thickness consistent with high Re jet. The simulations are carried out using hybrid large-eddy simulation type of approach which is incorporated by using near-wall turbulence model with modified properties. No subgrid scale model is used in these simulations. Hence, they effectively become numerical large-eddy simulation with Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes covering the full boundary layer region. The noise post-processing is carried out using the Ffowcs-Williams-Hawking approach. The simulations are made for Mach numbers (M) of 0.75 and 0.875 (cold and hot). The results for the overall sound pressure level are observed to be within 2–3% of the measurements, and directivity of sound is also captured accurately for both the cases. Hence, the low Re simulations can be more beneficial in saving time and cost while providing reasonably accurate results.
Large-eddy simulations are performed for hot and cold jets with and without a flight stream. The acoustic and flight stream Mach numbers are 0.875 and 0.3, respectively. The temperature ratios for the hot and cold jets are 2.7 and 1.0, respectively. The mean flow field results are in good agreement with the measurements. The Ffowcs Williams–Hawkings equation is used to predict far-field noise. Several axisymmetric Ffowcs Williams–Hawkings surfaces at increasing radial distances are used. They show that the surfaces closer to the jet can be affected by the hydrodynamic pressure. It is important to close the Ffowcs Williams–Hawkings surfaces at the ends to account for all the acoustic signals emanating from the jet. In this work, 11 end discs are used at the downstream end of the Ffowcs Williams–Hawkings surface. It is found that the simple averaging processes to cancel hydrodynamic sound at the end discs are insufficient for slowly decaying jets. In such cases, a partially closed disc can be a better choice. To remove hydrodynamic signals, a filtering scheme for the end discs is suggested. For slowly decaying jets, this gives better results.
The aerodynamics and noise produced by aeroengines are critical topics in engine design. Hybrid Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes/large-eddy simulation are used to investigate the influence of upstream internal geometry on jet flow and noise. The methods are validated using an isolated nozzle. The internal geometry is added by using approximated immersed boundary methods and body force methods, reducing grid complexity and cost. Installed coaxial nozzles, including an intake, wing, and flap, as well as (internally) the fan, outlet guide vanes, and other large features, are modeled. These large-scale multifidelity, multiphysics calculations are shown to reveal substantial new aeroacoustic insights into an installed aeroengine. The turbulence generated internally introduces a complex unsteady nozzle exit flow. This accelerates inner shear layer development, moving it one jet diameter upstream; and it reduces the potential core length by 5%. For the more intense outer shear layer, the effect appears secondary.
Our recent efforts of using large-eddy simulation (LES) type methods to study complex and realistic geometry single stream and co-flow nozzle jets and acoustics are summarized in this paper. For the LES, since the solver being used tends towards having dissipative qualities, the subgrid scale (SGS) model is omitted, giving a numerical type LES (NLES). To overcome near wall streak resolution problems a near wall RANS (Reynolds averaged Navier–Stokes) model is smoothly blended in the LES making a hybrid RANS–NLES approach. Several complex nozzle geometries including the serrated (chevron) nozzle, realistic co-axial nozzles with eccentricity, pylon and wing–flap are discussed. The hybrid RANS–NLES simulations show encouraging predictions for the chevron jets. The chevrons are known to increase the high frequency noise at high polar angles, but decrease the low frequency noise at lower angles. The deflection effect of the potential core has an important mechanism of noise reduction. As for co-axial nozzles, the eccentricity, the pylon and the deployed wing–flap are shown to influence the flow development, especially the former to the length of potential core and the latter two having a significant impact on peak turbulence levels and spreading rates. The studies suggest that complex and real geometry effects are influential and should be taken into count when moving towards real engine simulations.
Large eddy simulations are performed for hot and cold single stream jets with an acoustic Mach number of (Ma = Vj/a∞ = 0.875). The temperature ratio (Tj/T∞) for the hot jet is 2.7 and for the cold jet it is 1.0. Grids with 34 million points are used. The simulation results for the flow field are in encouraging agreement with the mean velocity and Reynolds stress measurements. The Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FW-H) equation is used to predict the far-field noise. In this study four cylindrical FW-H surfaces around the jet at various radial distances from the centreline are used. The FW-H surfaces are closed at the downstream end with multiple endplates. These endplates are at x = 25.0D – 30.0D with Δ = 0.5D apart. It is shown that surfaces close to jet get affected with pseudo sound. To avoid pseudo sound, surfaces must be placed in the irrotational region. To account for all the acoustic signals end plates are necessary. However, a simple averaging process to cancel pseudo sound at the end plates is not sufficient.
Computational Fluid Dynamics and Aero-acoustics
Research Associate at Loughborough University (2015-16)