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Efm Space Planning Efm Commercial Services Hs Department of Social Sciences
Non-formal, yet educative, activities such as science festivals can positively influence the public regarding their attitude towards Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM) subjects and students’ willingness to pursue STEM-related careers. We evaluate the changes made to adapt the Oxford Brookes Science Bazaar, a science festival that has been delivered face-to-face since 2008, to a virtual format in 2021 due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The online festival included 28 pre-recorded and 12 live activities of different types (hands-on, demonstration, games, lectures, podcasts, virtual tours). Hands-on activities and virtual tours had the highest number of unique viewers, while lectures and podcasts were the least watched. The videos were watched also after the advertised date of the festival and reached a broader audience than the physical events. The number of participants, the holding time, and the proportion of people who filled the feedback forms, however, were lower in the online than the physical events. STEM organisations should consider hybrid events, with both virtual and in-person contents, to reach a broader audience and to create more inclusive events. We provide recommendations on how to maximise the benefit of virtual formats, including expanding blended virtual activities to reach a wider variety of age groups.
Pollination services, from both wild and managed populations of insect pollinators, have degraded as a result of agricultural intensification. Whilst 75% of economically important crops depend on insect pollinators for cultivation, 40% of insect pollinator species are threatened with extinction. Pollination services must be preserved if there is to be enough food for a global population whose demand is expected to double, if not triple, by 2050. Pollinator diversity and pollinator efficiency have been found to increase as a result of wildlife-friendly farming practices (i.e., natural chemicals and fertilizers and agroforestry). We evaluated the presence of insect pollinators in 42 coffee home gardens in West Java, Indonesia. Via generalized linear mixed models, we found that number of visitor species (β = 0.418 ± SE 0.194, p = 0.031) and visitation time (β = 0.845 ± SE 0.308, p = 0.006) decreased as farms were more intensely managed, (i.e., used chemical pesticides), compared to fields using organic practices. As knowledge of pollination services is widespread amongst smallholder farmers in Indonesia and beyond due to the long-held tradition of beekeeping, these results will add to their existing knowledge and empower farmers to enhance resources for pollinator species through agroforestry and natural pest management. Although we found significant differences in pollination services provided in intensely managed and wildlife-friendly farms, chemical use can affect farms far beyond a particular area of production. Therefore, pollinator conservation must be applied at a landscape level and involve all stakeholders, including farmers, when making effective policies.
Accelerometers offer unique opportunities to study the behaviour of cryptic animals but require validation to show their accuracy in identifying behaviours. This validation is often undertaken in captivity before use in the wild. While zoos provide important opportunities for trial field techniques, they must consider the welfare and health of the individuals in their care and researchers must opt for the least invasive techniques. We used positive reinforcement training to attach and detach a collar with an accelerometer to an individual Bengal slow loris (Nycticebus bengalensis) at the Shaldon Wildlife Trust, U.K. This allowed us to collect accelerometer data at different periods between January–June 2020 and January–February 2021, totalling 42 h of data with corresponding video for validation. Of these data, we selected 54 min where ten behaviours were present and ran a random forest model. We needed 39 15-min sessions to train the animal to wear/remove the collar. The accelerometer data had an accuracy of 80.7 ± SD 9.9% in predicting the behaviours, with 99.8% accuracy in predicting resting, and a lower accuracy (but still >75% for all of them apart from suspensory walk) for the different types of locomotion and feeding behaviours. This training and validation technique can be used in similar species and shows the importance of working with zoos for in situ conservation (e.g., validation of field techniques).
Complex agroforestry systems can host similar biodiversity levels to adjacent continuous forests and can offer important ecosystem services for wildlife. Species inhabiting adjacent forests, as well as species that prefer agroforestry systems, can benefit from this habitat matrix. It is necessary, however, to understand the species-specific adaptability to such a complex matrix. Indonesia is a biodiversity hotspot and hosts many endemic species that are threatened with extinction. Its human population relies heavily on agriculture, meaning that finding a balance between crop productivity and biodiversity is key for the long-term sustainability of local communities and wildlife. We aim to determine the influence of the presence of shade trees and distance to the forest on the detection rates of wildlife in coffee home gardens. In West Java, Indonesia, we monitored 23 gardens between April 2018 and March 2021 via camera traps, totalling 3856 days of monitoring in shade-grown and 3338 days in sun-exposed gardens. We also collected data in the nearby montane rainforest, totalling 1183 days of monitoring. We used Generalized Additive Models to estimate the influence of shade cover and distance to the forest on the detection rates of wildlife. The Sunda leopard cat Prionailurus javanensis was found more frequently in shade-grown gardens and used both the forest and agroforest matrix. Wild boars Sus scrofa mostly occurred in gardens adjacent to the forest, while barred buttonquails Turnix suscitator were associated with gardens far (>1 km) from the forest. Several species (civets Viverricula indica and Paradoxus musangus javanicus, Horsfield’s treeshrew Tupaia javanica, Javan ferret badger Melogale orientalis, Javan mongoose Herpestes javanicus) were not influenced by shade cover and distance to the forest, suggesting they are well adapted to the agroforestry system. Still, species of high conservation importance, such as Javan leopard Panthera pardus melas, Sunda porcupine Hystrix javanica, and grizzled langur Presbytis comata, were present in the forest but not in the agroforest, suggesting that the replacement of the forest by the agroforestry matrix is still detrimental. Nevertheless, it is important to maintain the complexity of the agroforestry system and connectivity with the neighbouring continuous forest to favour the long-term sustainability of this environment and the conservation of endemic species.
Traditional socio-ecological models consider that folivorous primates experience limited feeding competition due to the low quality, high abundance, and even distribution of leaves. Evidence from several folivorous species that experience similar constraints to frugivores does not support this hypothesis. The sympatric lemur genera Avahi (Indriidae) and Lepilemur (Lepilemuridae) are good models to understand how food availability constrains folivores since they are both nocturnal, folivorous, and have a comparable body mass. Here we investigate how two nocturnal folivorous primates, Avahi meridionalis and Lepilemur fleuretae, living in the lowland rain forest of Tsitongambarika, South-East Madagascar, partition their dietary niche and are influenced by seasonality of young leaves. To account for food availability, we collected annual phenological data on 769 trees from 200 species. We also collected behavioural data on 5 individuals per lemur species from August 2015 to July 2016 via continuous focal sampling. We found the phenological profile to be seasonal with peaks of leaf flushing, flowering, and fruiting occurring in the austral summer. The two species showed limited dietary overlap (37% rich period, 6% lean period), and A. meridionalis showed higher feeding time and longer daily distances travelled during the rich period. L. fleuretae showed a dietary shift during the lean period, relying more on mature leaves (73.3% during the lean period, 13.5% during the rich period) but maintaining similar activity levels between seasons. The time spent feeding on food items by A. meridionalis was positively correlated with the nitrogen content and negatively correlated with polyphenols in food items during the rich period. We highlighted a clear effect of the seasonality of young leaves on the diet, nutritional content, activity patterns, and daily distances travelled by two folivorous species, which can be linked to nutrient balancing and time-minimising versus energy-maximising strategies.
Agroforestry systems have been recognised as a possible refuge for biodiversity especially when bordering intact landscapes. The intensification of crop management to increase yields is usually associated with a reduction of shade trees and heavy use of chemicals, typically correlated with a decrease in biodiversity. The relationship between intensity of crop management and biodiversity, however, is not clear-cut and is dependent on environmental and geographical differences. We assessed the influence of different shade cover, shade tree richness, richness of other crops, distance from the forest, and use of chemicals on the diversity, richness and abundance of butterflies, a bioindicator in coffee home gardens. We collected data in 42 coffee home gardens in West Java, Indonesia, via Pollard transects, totalling 15.1 km (July-August 2019 and July-August 2020). We found 54 species of butterflies in the gardens. Via Generalised Additive Mixed Models, we found that the use of chemicals negatively influenced the abundance (p = 0.001) and richness (p = 0.039) of butterflies, while shade tree richness positively influenced the abundance (p < 0.001), diversity (p = 0.046) and richness (p < 0.001) of butterflies. The other predictors did not have a significant effect. The high diversity of butterflies in the study area suggests that the agroforestry environment is now resilient, but the relationship between butterfly abundance, diversity, and richness with shade tree richness indicates an urgency to maintain and improve current ecosystem complexity. The negative relationship between butterfly abundance and richness and the use of chemicals further indicates that organic farming should be promoted to preserve ecosystem services provided by pollinators. Coffee production in Indonesia has dramatically increased in the last 10 years and producers are keener to use more intensive farming techniques with a consequent reduction of ecosystem complexity. This process can break the resilience of agroforestry habitats if actions are not taken immediately.
Indonesia is at the epicenter of the Asian Songbird Crisis, i.e., the recognition that the cage bird trade has a devastating impact on numerous imperiled bird species in Asia. The Javan pied starling Gracupica jalla, only in the last five years recognized as distinct from the pied starlings of mainland Southeast Asia, has been declared extinct the wild in 2021. Up until the 1980s, it used to be one of the most common open countryside birds on the islands of Java and Bali, Indonesia. From the early 2000s onwards, the species is commercially bred to meet the demand from the domestic cagebird trade. We conducted 280 market surveys in 25 bird markets in Java and Bali between April 2014 and March 2020, with 15 markets being surveyed at least six times. We recorded 24,358 Javan pied starlings, making it one of the most commonly observed birds in the markets. We established that, conservatively, around 40% of the birds in the market were sold within one week and used this to estimate that at a minimum ~80,000 Javan pied starlings are sold in the bird markets on Java and Bali. The latter represents a monetary value of USD5.2 million. We showed that prices were low in the 1980s, when all birds were sourced from the wild. It became more varied and differentiated in the 2000s when a combination of now expensive wild-caught and cheaper captive-bred birds were offered for sale, and prices stabilized in the 2010s when most, if not all birds were commercially captive-bred. Javan pied starlings are not protected under Indonesian law, and there are no linked-up conservation efforts in place to re-establish a wild population on the islands, although small-scale releases do take place.
There is an urgent need for a global transition to sustainable and wildlife-friendly farming systems that provide social and economic equity and protect ecosystem services on which agriculture depends. Java is home to 60% of Indonesia’s population and harbors many endemic species; thus, managing agriculture alongside human well-being and biodiversity is vital. Within a community of ~400 coffee farmers in the province of West Java, we assessed the steps to develop a wildlife-friendly program until reaching certification between February 2019 and October 2020. We adopted an adaptive management approach that included developing common objectives through a process of stakeholder consultation and co-learning. We firstly investigated via interviews the expectations and the issues encountered by 25 farmers who converted to organic production in 2016. Their main expectations were an increase in income and an increase in coffee quality, while they had issues mainly in finding high quality fertilizers, reducing pests, and increasing productivity. We used this information to establish a problem-solving plan for the transition to community-wide wildlife-friendly practices. As part of the adaptive evaluation, we assessed the quality of coffee plantations before and after the implementation of coproduced actions. The quality of coffee significantly improved after our interventions to reduce the coffee berry borer, especially in the fields that started as inorganic and converted to organic. We uncovered additional issues to meet the standards for certification, including banning hunting and trapping activities and increasing coffee quality for international export. We describe the coproduced actions (agroforestry, conservation education, local law, organic alternatives) and phases of the program and discuss the potential barriers. We provide novel evidence of adaptive management framework successfully used to implement management actions and reach shared goals.
Time is considered a resource in limited supply, and temporal niche separation is one of the most common strategies that allow ecologically similar species to live in sympatry. Mechanisms of temporal niche separation are understudied especially in cryptic animals due to logistical problems in gathering adequate data. Using high-frequency accelerometers attached to radio-collars, we investigated whether the ecologically similar lemurs Avahi meridionalis and Lepilemur fleuretae in the lowland rainforest of Tsitongambarika, south-eastern Madagascar, show temporal niche separation. Accelerometers stored data with a frequency of 1 Hz for a total of 71 days on three individuals of A. meridionalis and three individuals of L. fleuretae. We extrapolated motor activity patterns via the unsupervised learning algorithm expectation maximisation and validated the results with systematic behavioural observations. Avahi meridionalis showed peaks of activity at twilights with low but consistent activity during the day, while L. fleuretae exhibited more activity in the central hours of the night. Both lemur species had their activity pattern entrained by photoperiodic variations. The pair-living A. meridionalis was found to be lunarphilic while the solitary-living L. fleuretae was lunarphobic. We suggest that these activity differences were advantageous to minimise feeding competition, as an anti-predator strategy, and/or for dietary-related benefits. These findings demonstrate a fine-tuned temporal partitioning in sympatric, ecologically similar lemur species and support the idea that an activity spread over the 24-h, defined here as cathemerality sensu lato, is more common than previously thought in lemurs.
Ecologically similar species may exhibit temporal niche partitioning and separate their peaks of activity when co-occurring in an area. We show for the first time that the mainly nocturnal genus Avahi can exhibit high crepuscular activity with low but consistent bouts of activity (up to 44.6% of daily activity) during the day. We defined this activity as cathemerality sensu lato as opposed to the cathemerality sensu stricto observed in Eulemur sp. We suggest that this flexible activity may be advantageous for the species to minimise feeding competition and predatory pressure, and/or to provide dietary-related benefits. This finding in the secondary nocturnal genus Avahi supports the idea that activity patterns in lemurs are graded and traditional categorisations are inadequate.