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Faculty of Technology, Design and Environment
Context. Software Fault Localisation (FL) refers to finding faulty software elements related to failures produced as a result of test case execution. This is a laborious and time consuming task. To allow FL automation search-based algorithms have been successfully applied in the field of Search-Based Fault Localisation (SBFL). However, there is no study mapping the SBFL field to the best of our knowledge and we believe that such a map is important to promote new advances in this field. Objective. To present the results of a mapping study on SBFL, by characterising the proposed methods, identifying sources of used information, adopted evaluation functions, applied algorithms and elements regarding reported experiments. Method. Our mapping followed a defined process and a search protocol. The conducted analysis considers different dimensions and categories related to the main characteristics of SBFL methods. Results. All methods are grounded on the coverage spectra category. Overall the methods search for solutions related to suspiciousness formulae to identify possible faulty code elements. Most studies use evolutionary algorithms, mainly Genetic Programming, by using a single-objective function. There is little investigation of real-and-multiple-fault scenarios, and the subjects are mostly written in C and Java. No consensus was observed on how to apply the evaluation metrics. Conclusions. Search-based fault localisation has seen a rise in interest in the past few years and the number of studies has been growing. We identified some research opportunities such as exploring new sources of fault data, exploring multi-objective algorithms, analysing benchmarks according to some classes of faults, as well as, the use of a unique definition for evaluation measures.
This paper presents an overview of the usability engineering process for the development of a personalised clinical decision support system for the management of type 1 diabetes. The tool uses artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to provide insulin bolus dose advice and carbohydrate recommendations that adapt to the individual. We describe the role of human factors and user-centred design in the creation of medical systems that must adhere to international standards. We focus specifically on the formative evaluation stage of this process. The preliminary analysis of data shows promising results.
Although many papers have been published on software defect prediction techniques, machine learning approaches have yet to be fully explored.
In this paper we suggest using a descriptive approach for defect prediction rather than the precise classification techniques that are usually adopted. This allows us to characterise defective modules with simple rules that can easily be applied by practitioners and deliver a practical (or engineering) approach rather than a highly accurate result.
We describe two well-known subgroup discovery algorithms, the SD algorithm and the CN2-SD algorithm to obtain rules that identify defect prone modules. The empirical work is performed with publicly available datasets from the Promise repository and object-oriented metrics from an Eclipse repository related to defect prediction. Subgroup discovery algorithms mitigate against characteristics of datasets that hinder the applicability of classification algorithms and so remove the need for preprocessing techniques.
The results show that the generated rules can be used to guide testing effort in order to improve the quality of software development projects. Such rules can indicate metrics, their threshold values and relationships between metrics of defective modules.
The induced rules are simple to use and easy to understand as they provide a description rather than a complete classification of the whole dataset. Thus this paper represents an engineering approach to defect prediction, i.e., an approach which is useful in practice, easily understandable and can be applied by practitioners.
This article explores the role for visualization in interpreting data collected by a customised analytics framework within a healthcare technology project. It draws on the work of the EU-funded PEPPER project, which has created a personalised decision-support system for people with type 1 diabetes. Our approach was an exercise in exploratory visualization, as described by Bergeron's three category taxonomy. The charts revealed different patterns of interaction, including variability in insulin dosing schedule, and potential causes of rejected advice. These insights into user behaviour are of especial value to this field, as they may help clinicians and developers understand some of the obstacles that hinder the uptake of diabetes technology.
Adequate testing of AI applications is essential to ensure their quality. However, it is often prohibitively difficult to generate realistic test cases or to check software correctness. This paper proposes a new method called datamorphic testing, which consists of three components: a set of seed test cases, a set of datamorphisms for transforming test cases, and a set of metamorphisms for checking test results. With an example of face recognition application, the paper demonstrates how to develop datamorphic test frameworks, and illustrates how to perform testing in various strategies, and validates the approach using an experiment with four real industrial applications of face recognition.
We describe the role of human factors in the development of a personalised
clinical decision support system for type 1 diabetes self-management.
The tool uses artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to provide insulin bolus
dose advice and carbohydrate recommendations that adapt to the individual.
This paper introduces a pragmatic and practical method for requirements modeling. The method is built using the concepts of our goal sketching technique together with techniques from an enterprise architecture modeling language. Our claim is that our method will help project managers who want to establish early control of their projects and will also give managers confidence in the scope of their project. In particular we propose the inclusion of assumptions as first class entities in the ArchiMate enterprise architecture modeling language and an extension of the ArchiMate Motivation Model principle to allow radical as well as normative analyses. We demonstrate the usefulness of this method using a simple university library system as an example.
Traditionally, simulation has been used by project managers in optimising decision making. However, current simulation packages only include simulation optimisation which considers a single objective (or multiple objectives combined into a single fitness function). This paper aims to describe an approach that consists of using multiobjective optimisation techniques via simulation in order to help software project managers find the best values for initial team size and schedule estimates for a given project so that cost, time and productivity are optimised. Using a System Dynamics (SD) simulation model of a software project, the sensitivity of the output variables regarding productivity, cost and schedule using different initial team size and schedule estimations is determined. The generated data is combined with a well-known multiobjective optimisation algorithm, NSGA-II, to find optimal solutions for the output variables. The NSGA-II algorithm was able to quickly converge to a set of optimal solutions composed of multiple and conflicting variables from a medium size software project simulation model. Multiobjective optimisation and SD simulation modeling are complementary techniques that can generate the Pareto front needed by project managers for decision making. Furthermore, visual representations of such solutions are intuitive and can help project managers in their decision making process.
There are a number of mobile applications available to help patients suffering from Type 1 diabetes to manage their condition, but the quality of these applications varies greatly. This paper details the findings from a systematic analysis of these applications on three mobile platforms (Android, iOS, and Blackberry) that was conducted to establish the state of the art in mobile applications for diabetes management. The findings from this analysis will help to inform the future development of more effective mobile applications to help patients suffering from Type 1 diabetes who wish to manage their condition with a mobile application.