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Business School - Research Office
Oxford Brookes Business School
Phone number: (0)1865 485962
Location: GIP - CLC.G.14
This article proposes a new composite measure of gender diversity for research teams that goes beyond simply ‘counting heads’. This measure adopts a more elaborated understanding of gender diversity than merely relying on the proportion of women and men, by taking into account the outcomes of gendered processes along seven grounds of diversity (age, care responsibilities, marital status, education, tenure, seniority, contractual position). Rather than focus on the individuals or the organisations, this measure is computed at the level of teams. This is because teams constitute a unit of analysis highly relevant to the context of higher education research but are often neglected. Illustrations of the results for STEM research teams are provided to show the potential uses of the Gender Diversity Index as a diagnostic tool (e.g. in certification schemes such as Athena SWAN in the UK and elsewhere), or to measure and report on the progress of gender change within higher education institutions.
Measuring violence against women raises methodological questions, as well as the wider question of how to understand violence and locate it in relation to a societal context. This is all the more relevant given that measurement of violence against women in the EU has made an interesting phenomenon apparent, the so-called ‘Nordic Paradox’, whereby prevalence is higher in more gender equal countries. This article examines this phenomenon by exploring a range of factors – methodological, demographic and societal – to contextualise disclosed levels of violence. The analyses makes use of a multilevel analytic approach to take into account how macro and micro levels contribute to the prevalence of violence. The intercepts are then used to illustrate how taking these into account might provide an alternative ranking of levels of violence against women in EU countries. The results show that the ‘Nordic Paradox’ disappears, and can be undone, when factors at individual and country levels are considered. We conclude that the ‘Nordic Paradox’ cannot be understood independently from a wider pattern of violence in society, and should be seen as connected and co-constituted in specific formations, domains or regimes of violence. Our results show that the use of multi-level models can provide new insights into the factors that may be related to disclosed prevalence of violence against women. This can generate a better understanding of how violence against women functions as a system, and in turn inform better policy responses.
What happens when we focus primarily on violence as a central question – either within the gender regime approach or by making violence regime an approach in itself? The paper first interrogates gender regimes theoretically and empirically through a focus on violence, and then develops violence regimes as a fruitful approach, conceptualizing violence as inequality in its own right, and a means to deepen analysis of gender relations, gender domination, and policy. The article is a contribution to ongoing debate, which specifically and critically engages with the gender regime framework, as developed by Walby (2009).
Wearable sensors are becoming increasingly popular in organizational research. Althoughvalidation studies that examine sensor data in conjunction with established social andpsychological constructs are becoming more frequent, they are usually limited for two reasons:first, most validation studies are carried out under laboratory settings. Only a handful of studies have been carried out in real-world organizational environments. Second, for those studies carried out in field settings, reported findings are derived from a single case only, thus seriously limiting the possibility of studying the influence of contextual factors on sensor-based measurements. This article presents a validation study of expressive and instrumental ties across 9 relatively small R&D teams. The convergent validity of Bluetooth (BT) detections is reported for friendship and adviceseeking ties under three organizational contexts: research labs, private companies and universitybased teams. Results show that, in general, BT detections correlated strongly with self-reported measurements. However, the organizational context affects both the strength of the observed correlation and its direction. Whereas advice-seeking ties generally occur in close spatial proximity and are best identified in university environments, friendship relationships occur at a greater spatial distance, especially in research labs. We conclude with recommendations for fine-tuning the validity of sensor measurements by carefully examining the opportunities for organizational embedding in relation to the research question and collecting complementary data through mixedmethod research designs.
This study suggests that it is critical for executives to develop transnational social capital (TSC), or professional relationships and ties that span national borders. We first provide a conceptual framework and careful operationalization of TSC that differentiates between bonding and bridging forms of social capital. We then examine the effect of three key determinants—opportunity, investment, and ability—on the TSC of executives. Using detailed survey data on 227 executives, our analysis suggests that international experience, investment in communicating with cross-border ties, and cosmopolitan ability have direct effects on overall TSC. We further demonstrate that international experience and cosmopolitan ability affect both bridging and bonding, but that investment in cross-border communication only affects bridging social capital. The study proposes that social capital is becoming more and more transnational as connections, interactions, and transactions increasingly span national borders, which has implications for international business and human resource management (HRM). Given our findings, it would make sense for global organizations to pay more attention to these, if they would like their members to develop this resource. We point out benefits to organizations and individuals.
This article examines whether progress in women’s access to decision-making positions is best achieved through increased levels of development or targeted actions. Drawing on European data for the period 2006–2018, the article examines the association between how gender equal a country is and legislated measures such as board quotas with women’s representation on boards. The analysis then explores how this can be nuanced by differentiating between hard sanctions, soft sanctions and codes of governance. It shows that board quotas cannot be relied upon as instruments of progress independently of a contextual environment that is more gender equal. Furthermore, board quotas with hard sanctions work best, followed by codes of governance, particularly when associated with higher gender equality. However, board quotas with soft sanctions are associated with results that are only marginally better than not having any measure in place. The article concludes that for further and faster progress to be made, introducing legislated board quotas shows great potential, though only in combination with striving for a gender equal society and using hard sanctions. The results call for organizations not to lose focus on ‘rights’ at the expense of the more palatable ‘business case’ for board quotas when striving for equality on corporate boards.
In response to the increasing discourse on academic careers and knowledge creation, we develop and test a model predicting research performance in the field of management outside the Anglo-Saxon countries. Based on comprehensive data of French academics, we examine various factors – career-related and demographic factors like gender – that play a role in determining academic research performance in an increasingly global academia. The role of the English language is positively related to citations but not to the volume of papers or their global/national recognition. Higher institutional reputations were positively associated to number of papers, citations, and national recognition. Strikingly, there was no relationship with global recognition, suggesting that the reputation of institutions plays a role, but only insofar as the national context and without spillover into the global academic scene. Finally, men were over-performing in both publications’ quality and quantity. Career experience had a positive effect, although this reduced gradually over time. Our findings can help individuals’ career decision-making and institutional investment in human-capital. We offer an original contribution to facilitate the understanding of factors that may influence research performance outside the Anglo-Saxon academia by opening of the black box of knowledge development, exposing the role of academic publications and recognition.
The Gender Equality Index was developed at the European Institute for Gender Equality to monitor the progress in gender mainstreaming within EU policy areas. This chapter outlines the political, conceptual and technical background in its development. It also positions it within the wider context of the 1995 UN Beijing Conference, and the ensuing release of international measure of gender equality, as well as its interaction with the global measures of inequalities within the Sustainable Development agenda. It then discuss further the structure of the Gender Equality Index, its six domains (work, money, knowledge, time, power and health) and satellites (violence, intersecting inequalities), and the indicators used. We offer a criticism of methodological updates,arguing that recent ‘tinkering’ is at odds with the aim to offer a measure of gender mainstreaming. Finally, we conclude with examples of applications, an assessment of strengths and weaknesses, as well as some suggestions for future use.
The objective of this chapter is to provide a comprehensive review of the Equilar Gender Diversity Index (EGDI). The EGDI highlights the prevalence of women within the Russell 3000 company board of directors as a response to increasing calls for diversity from investors and other stakeholders. We begin by providing an overview of Equilar as an organisation, before outlining the purpose of the EGDI. We then move on to investigate how the EGDI is structured and the methodology used to construct it. Although the EGDI has a modest usage and awareness, we discuss a handful of academic papers, media articles and a high profile campaign that Equilar and its data are used and cited in before moving on to analyse the strengths and weaknesses of the EGDI. We conclude the article by making suggestions for future uses and how the EGDI can be improved.
In this chapter, we explore how quantitative methods can be used to advance the understanding of gender and diversity in the field of business and management. To this end, we address three interrelated layers: feminist ontology and epistemology in relation to data and quantitative methods; how gender scholars give and make sense of a feminist purpose in using data and conducting statistical analysis by relating it to linguistic theory; and applications to established and newly developed forms of quantitative methods. Overall, we call for a greater critical engagement of gender scholars with quantitative methods to use data with a feminist purpose.
This report explores and critiques the gendered construction of value within the nursing profession and evaluates how value is attributed to nursing, the value placed on individuals and the status of the profession.This work was commissioned by the Royal College of Nursing and undertaken as a collaboration between Oxford Brookes University and the RCN.
This report provides an overview of the UK spinouts landscape from a gender perspective. It is part of a widerproject, funded by the EPSRC’s Inclusion Matters programme, looking at the participation of women scientists, engineers and mathematicians in university spinout companies. The results examine sex-disaggregated data on the geography, governance and growth of these university spinout companies.The findings of this report are timely and important since little is known about spinouts from a gender perspective.
This is despite evidence that women are greatly underrepresented on patent applications (14% according toElsevier), spinouts are overwhelmingly founded or co-founded by men (Jarboe et al), and women only makeup one in three entrepreneurs more generally (Rose Review). Addressing women’s underrepresentation inspinout companies is thus not only a matter of social justice, but could also address a critical element ofthe UK’s Industrial Strategy, which aims to increase business and growth through research and innovation.