The desktop study has been undertaken to understand the impact of sanitation on women and girls, their health, and mainly impact on violence against women (VAW). The study identifies and highlights the different and specific needs and challenges that women and girls face regarding sanitation, and in the process aims to understand the link between sanitation and sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) to highlight limitations and gaps in furthering gender quality in sanitation. The study demonstrates that though there is growing literature on this subject, there is, at present, limited documentation, statistics and case studies to fully appreciate and understand the scope of this problem. Some guidance and tools are available; however, the success of these tools is not yet clear. Some key recommendations include gender mainstreaming and participatory Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) programmes; engagement and consultation with girls and women of all ages and backgrounds from the outset; improving understanding of physical, psychological and maternal health, hygiene requirements and habits of women and girls, especially from different backgrounds; gender sensitive design and construction of WASH facilities; well-established, effective and transparent monitoring, evaluation and reporting system; robust training and awareness programmes for WASH Practitioners; access to training for women and girls to be employed as WASH leaders, practitioners and champions; and training, advocacy and awareness for everyone.