I am a lecturer in Physiology and Medical Sciences at Oxford Brookes University. After obtaining an undergraduate degree in medicine, I went on to do a PhD in cancer biology at Oxford Brookes looking at the novel role of two microRNAs in cisplatin resistance of ovarian cancer. I have continued my interest in research in cancer biology focusing on exploring some of the roles of extracellular vesicles in cancer.
Teaching and supervision
- Biological Sciences (Human Biosciences) (BSc (Hons))
- Biomedical Science (BSc (Hons))
- Medical Science (BSc (Hons))
- Nutrition (BSc (Hons))
- Human Structure and Function
- Cellular Pathology
- Molecular Biology
- Research Methods
- Introduction to Biochemistry
- Independent Study module
My research interest is currently in extracellular vesicles, tiny membrane covered vesicles released by most cells in the body, which are thought to serve as a means of intercellular communication facilitating communication between neighbouring cells as well as those much further off. My research on extracellular vesicles fits into two different themes.
Extracellular vesicles and their role in cancer
Published literature suggests that extracellular vesicles play myriad roles in the pathology of cancer. I have previously studied the role of extracellular vesicles in drug resistance and the influence of extracellular vesicles from cancer cells exposed to cisplatin on naïve cancer cells. Currently, our research focus has widened to include investigating the role of extracellular vesicles in cancer metastasis; possible differences in cargo between extracellular vesicles from cancer cells and normal cells and the interaction of EVs from cancer cells with other cells of the body such as the endothelial cells, immune cells and fibroblasts.
Uptake mechanisms of Extracellular vesicles
I am also interested in the mechanisms involved in the uptake of extracellular vesicles by recipient cells. In order for extracellular vesicles to affect the functional characteristics of recipient cells, they need to be taken up by the recipient cell and their cargo released into the cell to be utilised. My research focus includes exploring some of the pathways and genes involved in the uptake and utilisation of the cargo of extracellular vesicles.
Projects as Principal Investigator, or Lead Academic if project is led by another Institution
- Evaluating the scope of single entity electrochemistry for determination of cancer EV cargo as an early detection approach (Led by Brighton University) (16/04/2021 - 31/07/2022), funded by: Cancer Research UK, funding amount received by Brookes: £7,850
Pink RC, Beaman E, Samuel P, Brooks SA, Carter DRF, 'Utilising extracellular vesicles for early cancer diagnostics: benefits, challenges and recommendations for the future'
British Journal of Cancer 126 (2022) pp.323-333
ISSN: 0007-0920 eISSN: 1532-1827Abstract Published here
Melling GE, Conlon R, Pantazi P, Dellar ER, Samuel P, Baena-Lopez LA, Simpson JC, Carter DRF, 'Confocal microscopy analysis reveals that only a small proportion of extracellular vesicles are successfully labelled with commonly utilised staining methods'
Scientific Reports 12 (2022)
ISSN: 2045-2322 eISSN: 2045-2322Abstract Published here
Carollo E, Paris B, Samuel P, Pantazi P, Bartelli TF, Dias-Neto E, Brooks SA, Pink RC, Carter DRF, 'Detecting Ovarian Cancer Using Extracellular Vesicles: Progress and Possibilities'
Biochemical Society Transactions 47 (1) (2019) pp.295-304
ISSN: 0300-5127 eISSN: 1470-8752Abstract Published here
Samuel P, Mulcahy LA, Furlong F, McCarthy HO, Brooks S, Fabbri M, Pink RC, Carter DRF, 'Cisplatin induces the release of extracellular vesicles from ovarian cancer cells that can induce invasiveness and drug resistance in bystander cells.'
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 373 (1737) (2017)
ISSN: 0962-8436 eISSN: 1471-2970Abstract Published here
Samuel P, Fabbri M, Carter DRF, 'Mechanisms of drug resistance in cancer: the role of extracellular vesicles'
Proteomics 17 (23/24) (2017)
ISSN: 1615-9853 eISSN: 1615-9861Abstract Published here
Bewicke-Copley F, Mulcahy LA, Jacobs LA, Samuel P, Akbar N, Pink RC, Carter DRF, 'Extracellular vesicles released following heat stress induce bystander effects in unstressed populations.'
Journal of Extracellular Vesicles 6 (1) (2017)
ISSN: 2001-3078 eISSN: eISSN 2001-3078Abstract Published here
Samuel P, Carter DRF, 'The diagnostic and prognostic potential of miRNAs in epithelial ovarian carcinoma'
Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy 21 (1) (2016) pp.59-73
ISSN: 1177-1062 eISSN: 1179-2000Abstract Published here
Samuel P, Pink RC, Brooks SA, Carter DR, 'miRNAs and ovarian cancer: a miRiad of mechanisms to induce cisplatin drug resistance.'
Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy 16 (1) (2016) pp.57-70
ISSN: 1473-7140 eISSN: 1744-8328Abstract Published here
Samuel P, Pink RC, Caley DP, Stevenson Currie JM, Brooks SA, Carter DRF, 'Over-expression of miR-31 or loss of KCNMA1 leads to increased cisplatin-resistance in ovarian cancer cells'
Tumor Biology 37 (2) (2015) pp.2565-2573
ISSN: 1010-4283 eISSN: 1423-0380Abstract Published here
Pink RC, Samuel P, Massa D, Caley DP, Brooks SA, Carter DRF, 'The passenger strand, miR-21-3p, plays a role in mediating cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer cells'
Gynecologic Oncology 137 (1) (2015) pp.143-151
ISSN: 0090-8258Abstract Published here
Jacobs L, Bewicke-Copley F, Poolman M, Pink R, Mulcahy L, Baker I, Beaman E, Brooks T, Caley D, Cowling W, Currie J, Horsburgh J, Kenehan L, Keyes E, Leite D, Massa D , McDermott-Rouse A, Samuel P, Wood H, Kadhim M, Carter D, 'Meta-analysis using a novel database, miRStress, reveals miRNAs that are frequently associated with the radiation and hypoxia stress-responses'
PLoS ONE 8 (11) (2013) pp.e80844-
ISSN: 1932-6203Abstract Published here