It will never be possible to completely remove all bias or error from the assessment process. However, by being mindful of factors that may cause bias and working to design them out of your exams, lecturers can create exams that “bias for best”.


  • Swain, M. (1984). Teaching and testing communicatively. TESL Talk, pp. 7-18.

Further material

This list provides further material on teaching and assessing international students.