School of Law

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  • Criminal Law and Criminal Justice

    Our Criminal Law and Criminal Justice group promotes and shares ideas linked to Criminal Law, Criminal Justice and Criminology.

    We take a broad approach to the study of Criminal Law and Criminal Justice and our members write on a number of different topics such as hate crime, sexting, anti-social behaviour, international criminal law, sentencing, criminal law and religion, equality, sexual offences, critical approaches to criminal law and the relationship between socio-legal theory and critical legal theory.

    Recent events

    • November 2017 - Professor Julian Roberts, Centre for Criminology, University of Oxford, gave a talk to our students on 'How Courts Sentence Offenders'
    • October 2017 - our special issue on 'Dangerous Speech and Images' was published in Information and Communications Technology Law. This brings together a collection of article on the regulation of dangerous speech and images on the internet.  Topics include: obscenity, child pornography, sexting, cyberhate and gross offensiveness. Chara Bakalis and Chris Lloyd edited the journal and also contributed articles on cyberhate and sexting. The other contributors are: Jacob Rowbottom, University of Oxford; Alisdair Gillspie, Lancaster University and Uta Kohl, Aberystwyth University.
    • Workshop on Criminal Law in the Digital Age
    • In July 2015, we ran a one-day workshop examining some of the legal problems associated with regulating speech and images on the internet. The topics discussed included: obscenity, sexting, hate crime, regulating the deep net and methodological nationalism. As a result of this workshop, we are planning to run a special journal issue on Dangerous Speech and Images: Regulating the internet.
    • Criminal Law and the Digital Age Seminar Series. Talks included the following:
      • ‘Grossly Offensive’ Speech on Facebook: Whose Standards and Who Decides? by Dr Uta Kohl, Aberystwyth University
      • Mapping Cybercrime: the Power of Money by Dr Audrey Guinchard, Senior Lecturer, Essex University
      • Sexting: A Legal or Societal Response? by Professor Alisdair Gillespie, Lancaster University
      • Cyberhate by Fernne Brennan, Senior Lecturer, Essex University
    • Hate and Blame Conference, 29 June 2012, Oxford Brookes University

    Selected recent publications by members

    • Chara Bakalis, 'Regulating Hate Crime and Hate Speech in England and Wales', International Syposium, Hate Crime:  State of Affairs from a Comparative Perspective, Bilbao, September 2017
    • Chara Bakalis, 'Taking Action Against Hate-Crime in Post-Brexit Britain:  Protecting Vulnerable Groups and Promoting a Culture of Tolerance and Inclusivity' by Public Policy Exchange. Chair.  London, June 2017.
    • Chara Bakalis, 'Regulating Online Hate' Hate Crime in Europe Conference, Gothenberg University, Sweden, February 2017
    • Chara Bakalis, ‘Reforming Cyberhate Laws’ Law Reform Now Conference, Sussex University, September 2016
    • Chara Bakalis, ‘Cyberhate Regulation’ SLS Conference, Oxford University, September 2016 
    • Chara Bakalis, ‘Rethinking Cyberhate’ Rethinking Cybercrime Conference, UCLAN, June 2016
    • Chara Bakalis, ‘The Power of the Electronic Word’ HSS Research Conference, Oxford Brookes University, June 2016
    • Chara Bakalis, ‘The Victims of Hate Crime’ International Network for Hate Studies Conference, Limerick University, May 2016
    • Chara Bakalis, ‘Regulating Hate in the Digital Age’ Globalisation and Hate Conference, Sussex University, May 2015
    • Bakalis Z, ' Rethinking cyberhate laws' Information and Communications Technology Law (2018) ISSN: 1360-0834 eISSN: 1360-0834
    • Chara Bakalis, ' The Victims of Hate Crime and the Principles of the Criminal Law'Legal Studies (2017) ISSN: 0261-3875 eISSN: 0261-3875 Website 
    • Bakalis, C and Lloyd, C. ‘Hate Crime in the Digital Age’ in M. Walters & J. Schweppe, The Globalisation of Hate: Internationalising Hate Crime, Oxford University Press.
    • Bakalis, C. (2015) Legislating Against Hatred: The Law Commission’s Report on Hate Crime, Criminal Law Review3, 177–191.
    • Bakalis, C. (Forthcoming) Legislating Against Hatred: The Law Commission’s Report on Hate Crime, Criminal Law Review.
    • Lloyd, C. (Forthcoming) ‘Judge, Jury and Executioner: Dredd, Derrida and Drones’ in Thomas Giddens (ed.) Graphic Justice: Intersections of Comics and Law , Routledge.
    • Bakalis, C. (2013) The Religion of the Offender and the Concept of Equality in the Sentencing Process, Oxford Journal of Law and Religion, 2(2): 440–461.
    • Lloyd, C. (2012) ‘Sakaarson the World Breaker: violence and différance in the political and legal theory of Marvel’s sovereign’, Law, Text, Culture16, 119–154.
    • Lloyd, C. (2012) ‘Ce qui arrive: Deconstruction, Invention and the legal subject of R. v R’, Australian Feminist Law Journal37, 65–82.
    • Sedman, D. (2012) Double Jeopardy in Europe: What Lessons for Global Players? in Jan Wetzel (ed.) The EU as a ‘Global Player’ in Human Rights? Routledge.
    • Sedman, D. (2010) Should the prosecution of ordinary crimes in domestic jurisdictions satisfy the complementarity principle? in Larissa van den Herik and Carsten Stahn (eds), Future Perspectives on International Criminal Justice, Cambridge University Press.
    • Bakalis, C. & Edge, P. (2009) Taking Due Account of Religion in Sentencing, Legal Studies, 29(3): 421–437
    • Edge, P. (2009) Sentencing and the religious defendant, European Human Rights Law Review5, 637–658.

    Selected recent talks by members

    • Bakalis, C. Equality and the Victims of Hate Crime, International Network for Hate Studies Conference, Sussex Univeresity, May 2014
    • Bakalis, C. Regulating Hate Speech Online, International Network for Hate Studies Conference, Sussex University, May 2014
    • Bakalis, C. Legislating Against Hatred: The Law Commission Proposals on Extending Existing Hate Crime Legislation, SLS, Edinburgh, September 2013
    • Bakalis, C. The Religion of the Offender and the Concept of Equality in the Sentencing Process, LARSN, Cardiff, May 2013
    • Bakalis, C. Hate Crimes and Equality, Hate and Blame Colloquium, Oxford Brookes University, June 2012
    • Chris Lloyd, A Retort to Norrie: Derrida, Law, and the Socio-Historical, Critical Legal Conference, University of Sussex, Brighton, Sep 2014.
    • Chris Lloyd, A Retort to Norrie: Derrida, Law, and the Socio-Historical, Derrida Today 4th International Conference, Fordham University (New York City), New York, May/June 2014.
    • Chris Lloyd, Judge, Jury and Executioner: Judge Dredd, Jacques Derrida, Drones, Graphic Justice Symposium, St. Mary’s University Twickenham, London, Sep 2013.
    • Chris Lloyd, ce qui arrive: The future of (Derrida’s) deconstruction, London Conference in Critical Theory, Royal Holloway, London, Oct 2013
    • Chris Lloyd, Hale’s performativity: Arkhe, storytelling, and narrative in English rape law 4th Biennial International Applied Legal Storytelling Conference, in association with the Legal Writing Institute and the Clinical Legal Education Association, The City Law School, City University London, London, Jul 2013.
  • Academic staff with related research interests

    Ms Chara Bakalis

    Principal Lecturer in Law
    Phone: +44 (0)1865 484679 | Email: | Location: Headington Hill Hall, H2.15

    Professor Lucy Vickers

    Head of the School of Law
    Phone: +44 (0)1865 484941 | Email: | Location: Headington Hill Hall, H1.18

    Professor Peter W Edge

    Professor of Law
    Phone: +44 (0)1865 484905 | Email: | Location: Headington Hill Hall, H1.17